Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Albuliformes
(Bonefishes) > Albulidae
(Bonefishes) > Albulinae
Etymology: Albula: Latin, albus = white (Ref. 45335).
Albula esuncula (Garman, 1899) and Albula goreensis Valenciennes, 1847 are two valid species resurected by Pfeiler in 2008 (two different papers) that were previously synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758).
The two species pages will be created.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 84 m (Ref. 13608), usually 1 - 15 m (Ref. 9268). Subtropical; 45°N - 31°S, 159°W - 35°W (Ref. 55166)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 48.8, range 21 - 36 cm
Max length : 104 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4447); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 37955)
soft rays: 7 - 9;
Vertebrae: 69 - 74. Branchiostegal rays 12-14 (Ref. 4639). Silvery with dusky fins; base of pectorals yellow (Ref. 3970). Body elongate and fusiform (Ref. 4832). Last ray of dorsal and anal fins not prolonged; head region naked; spot and band absent on head; margin of nasal pore not black (Ref. 13608). Bluntly conical snout extends beyond inferior mouth (Ref. 26938). Pectoral and pelvic axillary scales present; a single long scale on each side of membrane between each ray of dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 4832).
Worldwide in warm seas. Hawaiian species have been verified by electrophoretic analysis (Ref. 5577), hence, Albula vulpes might be further split. The next available name for the West African form is Albula goreensis, Valenciennes, 1846. Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Peru (Ref. 2850). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Florida, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, Antilles and Caribbean to Brazil (Ref. 26938). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).
Inhabits shallow coastal waters, estuaries and bays, over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 3237). Often in schools, except large individuals which are solitary (Ref. 7251). Dorsal fin may show above surface (Ref. 42064). More or less pelagic but feeds on benthic worms, crustaceans, and mollusks (Ref. 2850). Tolerates oxygen poor water by inhaling air into a lung-like airbladder (Ref. 9710). Flesh is bony and not esteemed (Ref. 9268). One of the most important game fishes worldwide (Ref. 26938).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1990. Albulidae. p. 122-124. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris, Vol. 1. (Ref. 4447)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5029 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01480 (0.01049 - 0.02087), b=3.01 (2.91 - 3.11), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3; tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .