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Acipenser sturio  Linnaeus, 1758

Sturgeon
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Image of Acipenser sturio (Sturgeon)
Acipenser sturio
Picture by Svensson, A.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Acipenseriformes (Sturgeons and paddlefishes) > Acipenseridae (Sturgeons) > Acipenserinae
Etymology: Acipenser: Latin, acipenser = sturgeon, 1853 (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

环境 / 气候 / 范围 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; pH range: 7.5 - ? ; dH range: 10 - 20; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 4 - 93 m (Ref. 51346), usually 5 - 60 m (Ref. 26160).   温带; 10°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 71°N - 34°N, 25°W - 42°E (Ref. 59043)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: the only remaining spawning population occurs in the Garonne drainage in France (Ref. 59043, 89072). Used to range from Norway to the Bay of Biscay, including the North Sea, European coasts of Atlantic, northern Mediterranean eastward to Rhodos, western and southern Black Sea; occasionally recorded from the White Sea, Iceland, Morocco and Algeria. Anadromous, in most large rivers, but not recorded from Danube upriver of delta. Recent DNA studies using museum specimens revealed that this species co-exists with A. naccarii from the Adriatic Sea to the Iberian Peninsula (Ref. 52173). Several DNA sequence differences were found between individuals of the species from the Gironde River population and from the North and Baltic Seas showing that different populations of A. sturio are genetically divergent (Ref. 82476). Appendix II of the Bern Convention (2002). Appendix I and II of the Bonn Convention (2009). Annex II and IV of the EC Habitats Directive (2007). International trade banned (CITES I, since 29.7.83; CMS Appendix II).
东大西洋: 只在法国的法国革命时期的稳健共和党-Garonne-Dordogne 的流域中而且在乔治亚州只在 Rioni 流域中。 (参考文献 26160) 在它的海洋的时候,阶段分布于从比斯开湾到斯堪的那维亚半岛的东北大西洋海洋了, 地中海,摩洛哥与黑海 (参考文献 3397, 参考文献 26160, 参考文献 51346) 的北海岸记录来自冰岛了。 (参考文献 12462) 先前广泛地沿着所有的欧洲海岸分布。 (参考文献 26334, 参考文献 51439) 伯尔尼公约的附录 3(受保育的动物群). 國際間的買賣禁止 ( CITES I, 自從 29.7.83 以後; CMS 附錄 2). 發現於阿尼加湖與拉多加湖了。 (參考文獻 42845) 使用博物館標本的最近染色體研究揭露了這一個種共以來自亞得里亞海海洋到伊伯利亞半島的 A. naccarii 存在。 (參考文獻 52173)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 165 - ? cm
Max length : 600 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 125 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3397); 最大体重: 400.0 kg (Ref. 556); 最大体重: 400.0 kg; 最大年龄: 100 年 (Ref. 556)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 30-44; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 23 - 30. Body elongated, pentagonal section (Ref. 51442). Snout moderate with tip narrow and pointed (Ref. 3397), mouth inferior (Ref. 59043). Lower lip not continuous, interrupted at center (Ref. 3397). Four barbels halfway between snout tip and mouth but not reaching the latter (Ref. 3397, Ref. 51442). No scales, but 5 rows of scutes on the body: dorsal 9-16, lateral 24-39 on each side, ventral 9-14 on each side, with dense cross-lines of smaller rhombic plates between the dorsal and lateral rows (Ref. 2196, Ref. 3397, Ref. 40476, Ref. 51442). Dorsal side greenish-brown to blackish with golden tints, flanks light with silvery tints, belly white (Ref. 3397).
身体延长, 五角的部分.(参考文献 51442) 吻中等的具有顶端狭窄而尖的.(参考文献 3397) 下唇不是连续, 在中心中断.(参考文献 3397) 四个触须在吻顶端与嘴之间的中点但是不达到后者.(参考文献 3397, 参考文献 51442) 没有鳞片, 但是在身体上的 5个列的鳞甲: 背部的 9-16, 在两边上的侧部 24-39, 在两边上的腹面 9-14, ,有稠密的在背部与侧面的列之间的比较小菱形的碟的跨线。 (参考文献 2196,参考文献 3397,参考文献 40476,参考文献 51442) 背部两侧橄榄蓝色的具有金色光泽, 侧面颜色较淡具有银色光泽, 腹部白色的.(参考文献 3397)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Amphihaline and anadromous fish (Ref. 51346, 51439), frequenting littoral zones (Ref. 2163, 51439, 51442). A long-lived and slow-growing species (Ref. 9988). It lives the major part of his life in sea but enters rivers for reproduction (Ref. 30578, 51442). Found on various substrates, from sand to rocks (Ref. 51346). At the sea, it occurs in coastal and estuarine zones. In freshwaters, it inhabits estuaries and large rivers (Ref. 59043). Juveniles found both in estuaries and in the sea (Ref. 2163), they slowly adapt to saltwater (Ref. 89103) and usually spend around 2-3 years in river estuaries before moving to the sea (Ref. 40152), some may migrate to the sea during their first summer (Ref. 59043). Usually solitary. Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, polychaete worms and small fish. Today most males only reach 100-150 cm length, females 130-215 cm (Ref. 59043, 89104). Utilized fresh and frozen, and also for caviar; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). A threatened species, mainly due to bycatch, poaching, habitat degradation (spawning grounds, nursery areas) and physical obstacles to migration (Ref. 26160).

Amphihaline 与河川洄游鱼 (参考文献 51346, 参考文献 51439), 常出现于海滨的区域。 (参考文献 2163, 参考文献 51439, 参考文献 51442) 它住他的被生活于的海洋的主要部份但是为繁殖进入河.(参考文献 30578, 参考文献 51442) 发现的稚鱼在河口中与在海洋中.(参考文献 2163) 通常独居性的。 变成稀有。 (参考文献 4537) 吃甲壳动物,软件动物,多毛类的蠕虫与小鱼。 卵沈淀在沙子或砾石上面了。 一个长命而生长缓慢的种.(参考文献 9988) 生鲜使用与冷冻, 以及对于鱼子酱; 清蒸, 油锅炸的,火烤的, 煮沸了, 微波了而且烧烤了.(参考文献 9988) 一个受威胁种,主要地由于误捕,侵入, 栖息地减少 (产卵场, 繁殖场) 与回游的物理障碍.(参考文献 26160) 范围 500-600 公分而且也许活超过 100 年。 在一个 7-9 年的年龄时性成熟。 产卵在深度在多石底部上的 2-10 公尺。 雌性生产附着到石头的 800,000-2,400,000个黏黏的深灰色的卵。 (参考文献 35388) 也参考文献 40476.

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Anadromous species, with adults migrating to the middle reaches of large rivers mainly in spring and early summer. Spawning occurs between March and August, when water temperature rises above 20 °C at depths of 2-10 m over stony bottoms in areas with strong current (1.5-2.0 m/s) (Ref. 51442, 59043, 89103). Mature individuals do not feed during spawning migration (Ref. 3193). Number of spawned eggs increases with age. After spawning adults return to the sea (Ref. 51442). The development of the sticky dark grey eggs (2.6-3.0 mm diameter) takes about one week at 17°C (Ref. 26160, 35388). It is suggested that males spawn every 2 years, females every 3-4 years (Ref. 89072). Upstream spawning migrations appear to be positively correlated with water levels in rivers and distances of 1,000 kilometres or more may be covered when water levels are high (Ref. 89104). Sturgeons in general have a high capacity for hybridization and most species are able to cross-breed (Ref. 89103, 89117). This species has been reported to cross-breed (albeit rarely) with the Danube sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti) (Ref. 89105). 东大西洋: 只在法国的法国革命时期的稳健共和党-Garonne-Dordogne 的流域中而且在乔治亚州只在 Rioni 流域中。 (参考文献 26160) 在它的海洋的时候,阶段分布于从比斯开湾到斯堪的那维亚半岛的东北大西洋海洋了, 地中海,摩洛哥与黑海 (参考文献 3397, 参考文献 26160, 参考文献 51346) 的北海岸记录来自冰岛了。 (参考文献 12462) 先前广泛地沿着所有的欧洲海岸分布。 (参考文献 26334, 参考文献 51439) 伯尔尼公约的附录 3(受保育的动物群). 國際間的買賣禁止 ( CITES I, 自從 29.7.83 以後; CMS 附錄 2). 發現於阿尼加湖與拉多加湖了。 (參考文獻 42845) 使用博物館標本的最近染色體研究揭露了這一個種共以來自亞得里亞海海洋到伊伯利亞半島的 A. naccarii 存在。 (參考文獻 52173)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

  极度濒危 (CR) (A2cde; B2ab(ii,iii,v))

CITES (Ref. 115941)

对人类的威胁

  无害处的




人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.3 - 18.8, mean 11 (based on 738 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00269 (0.00157 - 0.00463), b=3.13 (2.98 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (tm=7-20; tmax=100).
Prior r = 0.15, 2 SD range = 0.04 - 0.67, log(r) = -1.9, SD log(r) = 0.73, Based on: 1 K, 25 tgen, 1 tmax, 6 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.