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Acipenser oxyrinchus  Mitchill, 1815

Atlantic sturgeon
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Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Acipenseriformes (Sturgeons and paddlefishes) 鱘形目 (Sturgeons and paddlefishes) > Acipenseridae (Sturgeons) 鱘科 (Sturgeons) > Acipenserinae
Etymology: Acipenser: Latin, acipenser = sturgeon, 1853 (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Mitchill.

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 46 m (Ref. 4639).   亞熱帶的; 56°N - 10°S, 102°W - 33°W (Ref. 54265)

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Western Atlantic: Hamilton River, Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada to northeastern Florida, USA. Occurs occasionally in Bermuda and French Guiana (Ref. 7251). Northern Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26938). In Europe: Baltic Sea. Landlocked populations in Lakes Ladoga and Onega (Russia), both now extirpated. Occasionally recorded from Great Britain and North Sea in Elbe drainage (Ref. 59043). Recent research revealed that this species existed in the Baltic Sea, but is now extirpated (Ref. 83384, 83385). Near threatened globally, but extirpated in Europe (Ref. 59043). International trade restricted (CITES II, since 28.6.79).
西大西洋: 漢彌爾頓河,拉布拉多,加拿大紐芬蘭到美國的佛羅里達東北方。 偶見於百慕達群島與法屬圭亞那。 (參考文獻 7251) 墨西哥灣北部.(參考文獻 26938) 國際間的買賣限制。 ( 引用2, 自從 28.6.79 以後)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 190.0, range 183 - 243.8 cm
Max length : 403 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 26938); 430.0 cm TL (female); common length :250 cm TL (female); 最大體重: 0.00 g; 最大年齡: 60 年 (Ref. 39404)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 30-46; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 22 - 32. Elongate fish, pentagonal in cross section and shark-like fins (Ref. 26938). Double row of pre anal shields. Presence of a soft fontanelle. Bony shields are oval. Carina on dorsal shields do not have a conspicuous hook. Head and back bluish-black and lower surface whitish (Ref. 37032). Snout long, sharply V-shaped. 2 pairs of short, slender barbels in transverse line midway between end of snout and anterior edge of mouth (Ref. 4639). Viscera pale (Ref. 7251). Presence of 4 small scutes, usually as 2 pairs between anal fin and caudal fulcrum (Ref. 86798).
細長的魚, 橫切面為五角形與像鯊魚一樣的鰭.(參考文獻 26938) 兩列的前肛門的盾甲。 出現一個軟的囪門。 骨質盾甲是橢圓形的。 在背甲上的 Carina 不有一個顯著的鉤。 頭部與背部藍黑色的與下表面微白色的.(參考文獻 37032) 吻長的, 銳利 V 形。 在吻端與嘴的前緣之間的橫切線中途中的 2 對短又細長的觸鬚.(參考文獻 4639) 臟白色的.(參考文獻 7251)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Anadromous species. Occurs solitarily or in small groups; inhabits shallow waters of continental shelves. At the sea, it occurs in coastal and estuarine areas on soft bottom (Ref. 59043) down to a depth of 50 m (Ref. 89115). Adults are highly migratory while at sea (Ref. 57533) and make long migrations along the coast (Ref. 59043). Feeds on benthhic invertebrates such as mollusks, crustaceans and aquitic insects from the sediments (Ref. 93252). They forage mainly in brackish waters (Ref. 59043). Ascend large rivers to spawn (Ref. 59043). Juveniles may remain in fresh or brackish water until 2-5 years of age or 76-91.5 cm long (Ref. 4639, 59043). Today most individuals do not exceed 250 cm length. Tagging studies have shown that this species may move distances up to 1,450 km (Ref. 89119). Used smoked and fresh (Ref. 37032). Near threatened globally, but extirpated in Europe due to massive overfishing, damming, river regulation and pollution (Ref. 59043).

棲息於大陸棚的淺水域。 上溯到沿海的河川產卵。 卵底棲, 測量 2.55 mm 直徑而且在 17.8 °C 在 1個星期內孵化.(參考文獻 9980) 稚魚可能直到 3-5 歲逗留在淡水或半淡鹹水或 76-91.5 公分長.(參考文獻 4639) 雌性花 8 到 30 年達成性成熟而且只有每 3-4 年產卵一次。 精確的產卵時間仰賴溫度。 (參考文獻 26938) 使用煙燻與生鮮地.(參考文獻 37032)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Matures at increasing ages with increasing latitude (Ref. 88171). Both sexes do not spawn yearly and spawning intervals may vary according to area. In the St. Lawrence River, males spawn every 1-5 years, females every 3-5 years (Ref. 89103). Adults from the sea begin to ascend the lower reaches of large rivers in spring with the majority ascending immediately prior to spawning. Spawning occurs between March and August (Ref. 59043), when water temperature is 13.3-17.8 °C (Ref. 89118). Spawning occurs over bedrock, boulders or gravel bottoms, in depths exceeding 10 m at current velocities of 0.5-0.8 m/s (Ref. 59043, 89103). Exact time of spawning depends on temperature (Ref. 26938). Per female 0.4-8 million eggs may be spawned (Ref. 45706, 84845, 89137). Eggs demersal, sticking to stones, measuring 2.55 mm in diameter and hatching in 1 week at 17.8 °C (Ref. 4639, 9980). Adults return to the sea after spawning (Ref. 59043). Sturgeons in general have a high capacity for hybridization and most species are able to cross-breed (Ref. 89103, 89117). 西大西洋: 漢彌爾頓河,拉布拉多,加拿大紐芬蘭到美國的佛羅里達東北方。 偶見於百慕達群島與法屬圭亞那。 (參考文獻 7251) 墨西哥灣北部.(參考文獻 26938) 國際間的買賣限制。 ( 引用2, 自從 28.6.79 以後)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 4.3 - 24.4, mean 17.3 (based on 268 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (K=0.03; tm=7-34; tmax=60; Fec=1.03 million).
Prior r = 0.16, 2 SD range = 0.06 - 0.45, log(r) = -1.83, SD log(r) = 0.5, Based on: 3 K, 18 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.