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(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); caeruleum: caeruleum meaning blue (Ref. 10294).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; air tawar bentopelagis. Temperate; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 46°N - 30°N
North America: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from southern Ontario in Canada and from western New York to Minnesota, and south to northern Alabama and Arkansas in the USA. Isolated populations in southwestern Mississippi and eastern Louisiana, and in upper Potomac River drainage in West Virginia, USA.
Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.7 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.3 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 12193); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 3 Tahun (Ref. 12193)
Adults inhabit fast gravel and rubble riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Feed on midge larvae, hydropsychid and hydroptilid caddisfly larvae, mayfly nymphs, and fish eggs (Ref. 10294). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 36980). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 36980). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
ancaman kepada manusia
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
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Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278
): Tinggi, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum kurang dari 15 bulan (K=0.64-0.82; tmax=3; Fec=508-1462).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .