Classification / Names
Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate)
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); caeruleum: caeruleum meaning blue (Ref. 10294).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; acqua dolce benthopelagico. Temperate; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 46°N - 30°N
North America: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from southern Ontario in Canada and from western New York to Minnesota, and south to northern Alabama and Arkansas in the USA. Isolated populations in southwestern Mississippi and eastern Louisiana, and in upper Potomac River drainage in West Virginia, USA.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.7 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.3 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 12193); Età massima riportata: 3 anni (Ref. 12193)
Adults inhabit fast gravel and rubble riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Feed on midge larvae, hydropsychid and hydroptilid caddisfly larvae, mayfly nymphs, and fish eggs (Ref. 10294). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 36980). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 36980). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (K=0.64-0.82; tmax=3; Fec=508-1462).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .