Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; oceanodromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 4388), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 89422). Subtropical; 12°C - 24°C; 65°N - 70°S, 180°W - 180°E
Atlantic, Indian and South Pacific (Ref. 47377). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and Bermuda (Ref. 7251) to Belize and the Antilles (Ref. 26340). Also found in Brazil (Ref. 47377) and in Argentine (Ref. 2806). Eastern Atlantic: central Norway (Ref. 6697) southward to Algoa Bay, South Africa (Ref. 4388). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 26340); common length : 40.0 cm SL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3397); peso massimo pubblicato: 6.0 kg (Ref. 4645); Età massima riportata: 9 anni (Ref. 33866)
Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 35-38; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 29 - 32; Vertebre: 41 - 45. Compressed, deep body with a steeply curved head profile (Ref. 33616). Dorsal and anal fins scaled and with rigid fin rays (Ref. 35388).
An oceanic and epipelagic species, also found to 1,000 m depth (Ref. 27121). Occasionally comes close to shore (Ref. 9563). Seasonal migrant occurring in small schools, movements apparently temperature-related. Opportunistic feeder on small fishes, cephalopods, amphipods, and euphausiids. Sold fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
Gomes, J., 1990. Bramidae. p. 758-764. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNCT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4936)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.7 - 23.9, mean 11.8 °C (based on 5684 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00633 - 0.02083), b=3.01 (2.84 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 13.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (Assuming tm>4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .