Elasmobranchi (squali e razze) (sharks and rays)
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino batidemersale; distribuzione batimetrica ? - 500 m. Deep-water; 33°N - 31°N
Eastern Atlantic: endemic to Madeira; possibly Azores. Nominal records from western Africa and the Canary Islands could not be verified and are probably misidentifications.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 85.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2683); common length : 50.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2683)
Morfologia | Morfometria
Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 0. Upper surface wholly prickly, underside almost entirely prickly; orbital thorns separate, a regular row of 21-25 large thorns from nape to first dorsal fin; upper surface dark brown with a constant pattern of irregular light spots forming broad undulating transverse bands with narrower unspotted bands between, underside white, but grey on snout and broad dark margin to disc from behind midpoint of anterior margin, also blackish at tip of tail (Ref. 3167).
Feeds on all kinds of benthic animals (Ref. 3167). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Oviparous (Ref. 3167). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Age/SizeAccrescimentoLength-weightLength-lengthLength-frequenciesMorfometriaMorfologiaLarveDinamica popolazioni larvaliReclutamentoAbbondanza
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00132 - 0.00632), b=3.23 (3.06 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .