Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Temperate; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 13614); 47°N - 41°N, 32°E - 42°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13614)
This species is distinguished from other related species in the Black Sea basin by the following characters: pelvic disc 80-100% of distance between its origin and anus; cycloid scales completely cover predorsal area and nape; pelvic disc fraenum with angular lobes, fraenum length 1/6-1/2 of its width at base; scales in midlateral series 58-70 + 2-4; snout length 1.3-1.5 times in eye diameter; first branched ray of second dorsal about as long as penultimate ray; posterior part of first dorsal without black spot (Ref. 59043).
Europe: Azov and northern Black Sea basins from Bulgaria to eastern Criema; freshwater only in Danube delta.
Rarely enters freshwaters (Ref. 26334). Inhabits inshore habitats, brackish lagoons, estuaries and lower part of large rivers; usually associated with rock bottom or sunken trees. Spawns at 2 years, from December to April where females can repeat spawning during a season. Feeds mostly on crustaceans (Ref. 59043).
Reshetnikov, Y.S., N.G. Bogutskaya, E.D. Vasil'eva, E.A. Dorofeeva, A.M. Naseka, O.A. Popova, K.A. Savvaitova, V.G. Sideleva and L.I. Sokolov, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. J. Ichthyol. 37(9):687-736.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00507 - 0.02267), b=3.03 (2.85 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .