Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5377); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
Length at first maturity
Lm 17.0  range ? - 18.5 cm
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - ? m (Ref. 54436), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 54436)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 25°N - 8°S, 17°W - 14°E (Ref. 54436)
Eastern Central Atlantic: Dakhla, Western Sahara to at least Lobito, Angola, corresponding to the extreme northerly and southerly limits of the 25°C isotherms throughout the year; dwarf population exist in Lake Nokoué, Benin. Cape Verde records based on erroneous type locality for Ethmalosa fimbriata by Bowdich - followed by later authors.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 19 - 23. Upper jaw with distinct median notch, into which tip of lower jaw fits. Lower gill rakers long, fine and numerous, about 3 times as long as gill filaments; upper gill rakers bent sharply upward, V-shaped. Caudal fin deep chrome, tips long and pointed. A faint dark spot behind gill cover (sometimes followed by others); dorsal fin tip black; golden tints on body. Scute: 16-19 prepelvic, 10-13 post. Scales in lateral series 37-42.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: experimental
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 1.0000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
2.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.25-0.36; tm=1; Fec=16,000)
Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100)