Freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 25°C - 30°C (Ref. 1672)
Asia and Oceania: India eastward to the Philippines, and south to Indonesia, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and northern Australia.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Occurs primarily in brackish mangrove estuaries, but also penetrates rivers and small streams (Ref. 4833, 44894). Reported to occur near overhanging vegetation on reefs (Ref. 9710, 48636). Usually in small aggregations (Ref. 48635). Feeds at the surface during daytime on floating debris which includes insects and vegetable matter. It is renowned for its ability to 'shoot down' insect prey by expelling beads of water from its mouth with considerable force and for its remarkable ability to compensate for visual refraction when aiming its shoots; shooting range is about 150 cm (Ref. 2847, 55339). Sold fresh in markets.
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5156 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
2.6 ±0.27 se; Based on food items.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)