Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 97.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 10.1 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 23 years (Ref. 46974)
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - ?; depth range ? - 7 m (Ref. 1998)
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 10°C - 32°C (Ref. 12741), preferred ?; 47°N - 26°N
North America: St. Lawrence - Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins; Atlantic drainages from North Carolina to Florida and to northern Mexico. The species has been introduced widely as a game fish and is now cosmopolitan. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 10 - 12;
Vertebrae: 30 - 32. Mouth large; maxillary extending beyond the eye. Pelvic fins not joined by a membrane. Green to olive dorsally, milk-white to yellow ventrally, with a black band running from the operculum to the base of the caudal fin. Caudal fin rounded. Caudal fin with 17 rays (Ref. 2196).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5001 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.8 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.06-0.14; tm=3-5; tmax=11; Fec=2,000)
Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100)