Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 30 - ? m (Ref. 2058). Subtropical; 47°N - 28°N, 6°W - 42°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2058); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 4696)
Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov.
Benthic, inshore, brackish water, estuaries and lagoons, on mud and eel-grass meadows. Commercial in the Black Sea and in Sivash (Ref. 2058). Occasionally recorded in freshwater, but there are no documented records of actual occurrence in European freshwaters (Ref. 59043).
Iteroparous, females produce more than one batch of eggs within the breeding season (Ref. 50965).
Miller, P.J., 1979. Gobiidae. p. 483-515. In J.C. Hureau and Th. Monod (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM). UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4345)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00525 - 0.01379), b=3.06 (2.92 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3; Fec>5,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .