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Torpedo torpedo  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common torpedo
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Torpedo torpedo   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Torpedo torpedo (Common torpedo)
Torpedo torpedo
Picture by Wirtz, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 2 - 400 m (Ref. 4430), usually ? - 70 m (Ref. 27000).   Deep-water; 46°N - 17°S, 18°W - 36°E

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13417); 41.0 cm TL (female); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13417); common length :39 cm TL (female)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay and throughout the Mediterranean to Angola. Most common in tropical waters.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on soft bottoms, usually inshore but occasionally deeper. Feeds on small fishes and also benthic invertebrates. Ovoviviparous, with 3-21 in a litter (Ref. 12951). Size at birth 9 cm (Ref. 12951). Capable of inflicting a severe shock of up to 200 volts.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaborators

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 4690)




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.01193 - 0.03493), b=2.93 (2.77 - 3.09), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .