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Bathyraja simoterus  (Ishiyama, 1967)

Hokkaido skate
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Bathyraja simoterus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Bathyraja simoterus
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drawing shows typical fish in this Family.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae (Skates)
Etymology: Bathyraja: Greek, bathys = deep + Latin, raja, -ae = a ray (Raja sp) (Ref. 45335);  simoterus: Name probably derived from the comparative tense of the Greek ???ó?, meaning 'pug-nosed', referring to its rounded snout (Ref. 89865).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 96 - 540 m (Ref. 89865).   Temperate

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: off northern Japan.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 101 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89865)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

This species is distinguished from all other members of the subgenus Arctoraja by having a complete row of dorsal thorns, narrow interdorsal space, high count of precaudal vertebrae, and COI haplotype. It is further distinguished from B. parmifera by its narrower interdorsal space 0.5-1.0% TL (vs. 1.0-3.9% TL), number of precaudal and caudal vertebrae 41 and 90 (vs. 32-40 and 82-89), tail thorns 22-28 (vs. 15-23), larger orbit 4.3-5.3% TL (vs. 2.6-4.8% TL), 3 postdorsal foramina slightly smaller posteriorly, posteriormost postventral foramina 4 times larger than preceding 6 foramina (vs. anterior- and posterior-most postdorsal and postventral foramina of the scapulacoracoid larger than 3 intervening foramina), distal projection of the ventral marginal directed distally (vs. distolaterally), ventral terminal lanceolate (vs. tear-drop shaped), dorsal and ventral marginals extending farther distally to distal tip of dorsal terminal 3 (vs. extending to about a quarter the length of dorsal terminal 2); from B. panthera by its narrow interdorsal space width (vs. 1.4-3.1% TL); anterior portion of body shorter and narrower (vs. longer and wider); tail shorter (vs. longer); posterior fontanelle narrowly elongate (vs. pear-shaped); internal carotid foramina widely separated (vs. foramina in a single median pit), foramen of scapulocoracoid all large (vs. anterior postdorsal foramen large, others much smaller), ventral terminal lanceolate (vs. tear-drop shaped); from the incompletely thorned B. smirnovi by its higher number of vertebrae 131 (vs. 118-127), more precaudal vertebrae 41 (vs. 31-38), smaller mouth size 8.1-9.1% TL (vs. 8.3-11.6% TL), neurocranium with 2 fontanelles (vs. 1), internal carotid foramina widely separated (vs. close together in a single pit), scapulocoracoid with 3 foramina, more posterior each slightly smaller (vs. 5 foramina, anterior- and posteriormost larger than three intermediates), and pelvic girdle with two obturator foramina widely spaced (vs. close together) (Ref. 89865).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 12.0 cm long and 9.0 cm wide (Ref. 41253).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00243 - 0.00986), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .