Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335); rhina: From the Greek 'rhina' meaning nose (Ref. 27436).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 9 - 1069 m (Ref. 80796), usually 55 - 350 m (Ref. 43939). Deep-water, preferred ?; 61°N - 22°N, 165°W - 110°W (Ref. 55282)
Eastern Pacific: Navarin Canyon in the Bering Sea and Unalaska Island, Alaska to Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 90.0, range 70 - 100 cm
Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339); max. reported age: 13 years (Ref. 27350)
soft rays: 0. A row of about 20 sharp mid-dorsal spines from base of tail to space between dorsal spines where there may be an additional spine; 1 or 2 mid-dorsal spines immediately behind eyes; a sparse discontinuous row of spines around inner edge of orbit (Ref. 6885). Dorsal fins small and well back on tail; caudal reduced to a low ridge; anal fin absent; pectorals broad, attached to snout and incorporated with body; pelvic fins acutely and very deeply incised (Ref. 6885). A fleshy lateral ridge on each side of tail (Ref. 6885). Dorsal surface uniform brown with a simple dark ring at the base of each pectoral fin, and there may be a light spot posterior to the ring; the ventral surface is a muddy blue with small brown flecks on the anterior part (Ref. 6885).
Found partially or completely buried on sand and silty bottoms (Ref. 27436). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 9.4-13.0 cm long and 5.7-7.7 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41300, 41357).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Egg cases usually with only one egg (Ref. 6885).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00282 (0.00124 - 0.00641), b=3.23 (3.05 - 3.41), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Prior r = 0.14, 2 SD range = 0.03 - 0.72, log(r) = -1.97, SD log(r) = 0.83, Based on: 2 K, 2 tmax, 1 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .