Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Gymnuridae
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical; 44°N -
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9255); common length : 95.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 1468)
Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Peru.
Inhabits warm-temperate to tropical shallow bays and beaches (Ref. 2850). Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 37955). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Has a small venom apparatus which has limited use as a defense organ (Ref. 37955). Maximum length reported to reach 150 cm (Ref. 37955).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00488 - 0.04699), b=3.03 (2.78 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .