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Gymnura micrura  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Smooth butterfly ray
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnura micrura   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura micrura (Smooth butterfly ray)
Gymnura micrura
Picture by JAMARC

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 40 m (Ref. 5217).   Deep-water

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 137 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4439); common length : 90.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Broad, diamond-shaped ray with a very short tail lacking a dorsal spine (Ref. 26938). Snout protruding. Front edges of disk concave. Tail with low dorsal and ventral finfolds and 3 - 4 dark crossbars (Ref. 7251). Upper surface gray, brown, light green or purple with round spots. Lower surface white (Ref. 6902).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Maryland, USA to Brazil. Also Gulf of Mexico and northern South America to Brazil (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cameroon and Democratic Republic of the Congo (to the mouth of Congo River) (Ref. 4439). Reported from Mauritania (Ref. 55783). Nominal records from off Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Viet Nam, Borneo and Sumatra in Indonesia, and the Philippines need to be verified if indeed it is the same species that occurs in the Atlantic (Ref. 9918).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Prefers neritic waters of the continental shelf and usually found on soft bottoms. May enter brackish estuaries or hyper-saline lagoons (Ref. 5217). Feeds on fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Generally marketed salted (Ref. 5217).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and B. Séret, 1990. Gymnuridae. p. 64-66. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4439)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00488 - 0.04699), b=3.03 (2.78 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.53 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.