Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Gymnuridae
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 55 m (Ref. 27549). Deep-water
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 50 cm
Max length : 137 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4439); common length : 90.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Broad, diamond-shaped ray with a very short tail lacking a dorsal spine (Ref. 26938). Snout protruding. Front edges of disk concave. Tail with low dorsal and ventral finfolds and 3 - 4 dark crossbars (Ref. 7251). Upper surface gray, brown, light green or purple with round spots. Lower surface white (Ref. 6902).
Western Atlantic: Maryland, USA to Brazil. Also Gulf of Mexico and northern South America to Brazil (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cameroon and Democratic Republic of the Congo (to the mouth of Congo River) (Ref. 4439). Reported from Mauritania (Ref. 55783). Nominal records from off Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Viet Nam, Borneo and Sumatra in Indonesia, and the Philippines need to be verified if indeed it is the same species that occurs in the Atlantic (Ref. 9918).
Prefers neritic waters of the continental shelf and usually found on soft bottoms. May enter brackish estuaries or hyper-saline lagoons (Ref. 5217). Feeds on fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587); other crustaceans and clams (Ref. 27549). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Generally marketed salted (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and B. Séret, 1990. Gymnuridae. p. 64-66. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4439)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00423 - 0.04111), b=3.02 (2.76 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.53 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .