Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
(Skates) > Rajinae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 93 - 450 m (Ref. 27092). Deep-water; 2°S - 57°S, 99°W - 42°W (Ref. 58839)
Southwest Atlantic: between 45°36.1'S, 66°12.2'W and 51°6.8'S, 62°24'W to Uruguay (Ref. 58839). Southeast Pacific: Bahia de San Vicente to Seno Reloncavi, Puerto Montt.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 264 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Occurs on sandy and muddy bottoms of outer continental shelf and upper slope, also found at shallower depth 20m. Feeds mainly on bony fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 114953). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205); egg cases ca. 20-30 cm long (Ref. 114953). Reaches maturity at ca. 13 years (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.7 - 12.2, mean 6 (based on 124 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00140 - 0.00684), b=3.20 (3.02 - 3.38), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Prior r = 0.12, 2 SD range = 0.02 - 0.64, log(r) = -2.12, SD log(r) = 0.84, Based on: 1 K, 1 tmax, 1 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .