Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Gymnuridae
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Fowler.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Northwest Pacific: known from the type locality, Kowloon, China. Not in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Better reference needed.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1999. Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of November 1999. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in November 1999. (Ref. 33021)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00430 - 0.04037), b=3.03 (2.78 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .