Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Trichomycteridae
(Pencil or parasitic catfishes) > Trichomycterinae
Etymology: Ituglanis: Greek, itys, ityos = circle + Greek, glanis = a fish that can eat the bait without touching the hook; a cat fish (Ref. 45335); ramiroi: The specific name honors Ramiro Hilario dos Santos, local inhabitant and guide in Terra Ronca State Park, who discovered this species and an enthusiastic supporter of the protection of caves in the area.
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.8 - 7.5; depth range 0 - ? m (Ref. 55401). Tropical; ? - 23°C (Ref. 55401), preferred ?
South America: pool formed by infiltration of water in the São Bernardo Cave in Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55401)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 6;
Vertebrae: 36. Distinguished from its epigean and cave congeners by the combination of the following characters: small size (max. 3.13 cm SL); reduced body pigmentation, with very small chromatophores. Dorsal region of head darker than remaining body parts; small integument fold anterior to dorsal fin and prominent posterior to dorsal fin; eye size intermediate between I. bambui and I. epikarsticus, 3.7-4.7% HL; nine pectoral-fin rays; base of laminar surface of urohyal 1.5 times larger than distal extremity, dorsal process long; posterior process of palatine 3/4 of palatine length, with medial concavity slightly rounded; maxilla straight, without medial-posterior projection; fronto-lachrymal as long as maxilla, posteriorly pointed; opercle with 12-13 odontodes, interopercle with 24-25 odontodes; caudal skeleton with the upper hypural plate trapezoidal and the lower trapezoidal to rectangular, neural spine of preural centrum with acute extremity, dorsal procurrent rays 16 and ventral 12 (Ref. 55401).
Occurs in a side pool five meters above the main stream level, formed by water percolating from the rock. A solitary species, swimming on the bottom and displaying rare events of surface swimming (Ref. 55401). Exhibits weak cryptobiotic habits, sometimes hiding under boulders, but not burying in the silt (Ref. 55401).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bichuette, M.E. and E. Trajano, 2004. Three new subterranean species of Ituglanis from central Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 15(3):243-256. (Ref. 55401)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .