Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 100 m (Ref. 26165). Tropical; 30°N - 26°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa (Ref. 26165) to the Galapagos, Cocos, and Clipperton islands, north to the Hawaiian and Ryukyu islands, south to Australia and the Kermadec Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 0;
Vertebrae: 128 - 135. Greyish and speckled with irregular, dark markings (Ref. 3257). Young yellowish with hollow-centered spots which becomes less conspicuous with age (Ref. 3257). Lacks the molariform teeth as well as the depressible vomerine fangs present in most Gymnothorax and have two rows of vomerine teeth (Ref. 37816).
Adults inhabit reef flats and rocky intertidal shorelines. Feed on small fishes and crustaceans, sometimes leaving the water in pursuit of prey (Ref. 9710, 48635). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Simultaneous hermaphroditism is confirmed for this species (Ref. 84746). Caught with various nets (Ref. 30573). Solitary (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Simultaneous hermaphroditism is confirmed (Ref. 84746, 103751).
Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen, 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.1, mean 28.1 (based on 1736 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.72 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .