Heterodontus francisci  (Girard, 1855)

Horn shark
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Heterodontus francisci   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Heterodontus francisci (Horn shark)
Heterodontus francisci
Picture by Gotshall, D.W.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Heterodontiformes (Bullhead and horn sharks) > Heterodontidae (Bullhead, horn, or Port Jackson sharks)
Etymology: Heterodontus: Greek, heteros = other + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 2 - 150 m (Ref. 9253), usually 2 - 11 m (Ref. 9253).   Subtropical; 37°N - 15°S, 124°W - 75°W

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 59 - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); common length : 97.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 72467)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: central California, USA to the Gulf of California, and probably Ecuador and Peru.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Sluggish, nocturnal, and mostly solitary species. Inhabit rocky bottoms, kelp beds, sandy draws between rocks, on sand flats, deep crevices and small caves and also large underwater caverns. Adults tend to return to the same resting place every day (Ref. 43278). Feed on benthic invertebrates, especially sea urchins, crabs and probably abalone, also fishes. Oviparous (Ref. 50449). May bite back when harassed. Has broad muscular paired fins used as limbs for clambering on the bottom. Catch reduced to fish meal; fin spines used in production of jewels.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 2001. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Vol. 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. 1(2):269p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 43278)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 247)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(fisheries: species profile; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5059   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.