Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea near the southern Thai- Burma border through the Straits of Malacca and the Malay Peninsula to Singapore and Viet Nam, occurs off Thailand but coast and locality is uncertain.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - 12 cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9913)
Found in continental waters, both inshore and offshore (Ref. 9913). Biology little known (Ref. 9913).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Compagno, L.J.V. and P.R. Last, 1999. Narkidae. Sleeper rays. p. 1443-1446. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9913)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 28.4, mean 27.3 (based on 365 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .