Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Gempylidae
Etymology: Epinnula: Latin, ex = outside + latin, pinna = thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 100 - 185 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 38°N - 19°S, 109°E - 74°W (Ref. 6181)
Western Central Atlantic: Caribbean Sea. Northwest Pacific: southern Japan. One juvenile specimen found in eastern North Indian Ocean (12°27'S, 116°16'E).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6181); common length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6181)
(total): 15 - 16;
soft rays: 13 - 17;
Vertebrae: 32. Dorsal profile of head slightly elevated in front of anterior nostril, then nearly straight to origin of dorsal fin. Preopercle with two sharp spines at its lower angle. The mouth has several fangs, and a pair of large canines near the tip of the lower jaw which are exposed when the mouth is closed. Lateral line double, the lower branching off under the 5th or 6th dorsal spine. Overall color is grayish blue with the head being slightly darker than the body.
Rare species, probably mesobenthopelagic. Consumed as food (Ref. 4537). Reported to have been taken from 200-350 m in Jamaica (J. Tame pers. Comm. 08/16).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nakamura, I. and N.V. Parin, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 15. Snake mackerels and cutlassfishes of the world (families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the snake mackerels, snoeks, escolars, gemfishes, sackfishes, domine, oilfish, cutlassfishes,. scabbardfishes, hairtails, and frostfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(15):136 p. (Ref. 6181)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.6 - 25.4, mean 20.3 (based on 77 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00359 - 0.02015), b=3.00 (2.79 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .