Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Kneriidae
(Shellears) > Kneriinae
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 15°S - 17°S
Africa: endemic to the Cunene River system in Angola (Ref. 52193, 120641) and Namibia (Ref. 52193).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: opercular organ (lamellar part) overlying anterior part of lateral line; body depth 6.5 times, head length 5.3 times in total length; snouth length equal to eye diameter, 3.5 times in head length; snout smooth, males often with tubercles on cheeks or around eyes; operular organ much larger than eye (Ref. 88971). Dorsal fin origin slightly before midpoint of head and caudal fin base (Ref. 7248, 52193, 88971). Anal fin origin slightly before midpoint of pelvic fins and caudal fin base; body yellowish brown, with a lateral band made up of darkbrown spots, dorsally and ventrally bordered by a pale zone; back and belly with rows of irregular shaped spots; 3-4 overlapping dark spots on caudal fin base; black spot at base of pectoral and pelvic fins; caudal fin without color pattern; 1st and 2nd ray of dorsal and anal fin blackish (Ref. 88971).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .