Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Danioninae
Etymology: brevianalis: The specific name whitei honours Mr. A.G. White, who collected the type specimens in the Aapies River near Petronella and Hammanskraal (Ref. 116496).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 11°S - 29°S
Africa: Limpopo River, Incomati River, Pongolo River, Saint Lucia system and Mkhuze River in Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique (Ref. 116496). Also known from Okavango (Ref. 7248), upper Zambezi systems (Ref. 7248) and middle Luapula (upper Congo River basin) in Zambia (Ref. 52959).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 16 - 18;
Vertebrae: 37 - 38. Diagnosis: Caudal fin membrane clear towards vivid yellow at fork; anal fin extending two thirds of length of caudal peduncle; caudal peduncle moderately long; operculum entirely, not partially, shiny; body midline silver, not black; iris dark to light grey, not white; head with tubercles along lower jaw and lower head in breeding males; snout rounded, not pointed, darker dorsally; pelvic fin melanophores absent (Ref. 116496).
Pelagic species preferring close proximity to substrate and seeking out slacker areas such as backwater, eddies and pools below riffles (Ref. 116496). It occurs in shoals and prefers well-aerated, open water in flowing rivers, favouring the upper stratum (Ref. 7248, 116496). Feeds from water column on planktonic crustaceans and insects, such as midges and ants (Ref. 7248, 116496). Breeding occurs in early summer; appears to migrate up streams in spring to breed where it is found in tributaries (Ref. 7248, 116496).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Riddin, M.A., I.R. Bills and M.H. Villet, 2016. Phylogeographic, morphometric and taxonomic re-evaluation of the river sardine, Mesobola brevianalis (Boulenger, 1908) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Chedrini). ZooKeys 641:121-150. (Ref. 116496)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00327 - 0.01532), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .