Pseudocrenilabrus philander  (Weber, 1897)

Southern mouthbrooder
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Pseudocrenilabrus philander
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Pseudocrenilabrus: Greek, pseudes = false + Latin, crenulatus = cut + Latin, labrum = lip (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 12 - ?.   Tropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 2059); 5°S - 35°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Africa: from the Orange River system and southern Natal northwards throughout southern Africa, extending to southern Congo basin tributaries (Ref. 7248) and lagoons and rivers associated with Lake Malawi, but not the lake itself (Ref. 55954). Also in Lake Rukwa (Ref. 27292). Three subspecies are recognized: Pseudocrenilabrus philander dispersus, Pseudocrenilabrus philander luebberti and Pseudocrenilabrus philander philander.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5682); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 7248)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Anal soft rays: 8 - 10. Pectoral fin short and rounded. Caudal fin strongly rounded.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in various habitats, from flowing waters to lakes and isolated sinkholes, e.g., Lake Otjikoto, Namibia (see Ref. 27829); usually prefers vegetated zones. Feeds on insects, shrimps and even small fish. Breeds from early spring to late summer; males defend a territory, construct a simple cleared nest and attract ripe females. Eggs are laid in the nest, fertilized and collected by the female. The females withdraws to a nursery to brood the eggs until juvenile stage (Ref. 7248).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Female lays batches of eggs on a substratum which the male begins to inseminate. Female collects the eggs almost immediately after laying a batch and incubates eggs in her mouth for 12-14 days at 26°C, releasing the young after which. Parent guards the young for 5-7 days, keeping them into her mouth when approached by predators or divers.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborators

Skelton, P.H., 1991. Pseudocrenilabrus. p. 394-398. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5682)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00781 - 0.02126), b=2.96 (2.83 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.