Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Pellegrin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.5 - 7.2; dH range: ? - 18. Tropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 2059); 9°N - 5°N
Africa: endemic to the Sassandra basin, Côte d'Ivoire (Ref. 57223.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57223)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions; post-orbital length at least 60% of snout length; maxillary barbels longer than head, unbranched, without tubercles, but bordered by a narrow, black, hardly visible, basal membrane; outer mandibular barbels with numerous, rather long, simple and thin ramifications; branches of inner mandibular barbels shorter, subdivided and partly tuberculate; mandibular teeth rather short, numbering 37-47; denticulations of pectoral-fin spines weaker on outer than on inner margins; dorsal-fin spine smooth anteriorly and weakly denticulate posteriorly; humeral process blunt, at most about twice as long as deep, its upper margin more or less convex; adipose fin rather poorly developed and distinctly separated from rayed dorsal fin; body covered with irregular, more or less coalesced spots (Ref. 57223).
Coloration: rather dark, lighter ventrally; body entirely covered with brownish spots and marblings against a lighter background; spots on ventral body regions also large, but lighter; all fins marked with spots aligned in transverse series; adipose fin of the same colour as rest of body; top of head also spotted (Ref. 57223).
Maximum TL was recorded at 14.8 cm (Ref. 57223). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00268 - 0.01487), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .