Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 20 - 100 m (Ref. 2683), usually 20 - 100 m (Ref. 54930). Tropical; 15°C - 22°C (Ref. 54930); 35°N - 19°S, 26°W - 14°E (Ref. 54930)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 24.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7097); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584)
Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola. Sometimes ranging south to northern Namibia (Ref. 27121).
Adults are sometimes found near the surface. They form schools (Ref. 2683). Commercial fishing trawlers catch this species at depths up to 650 m (J. Luyben, pers. Comm. 10/02). Adults feed mainly on crustaceans (Ref. 4233). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00686 - 0.01921), b=2.93 (2.79 - 3.07), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.38 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.26).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .