Cathorops aguadulce (Meek, 1904)
Estuarine sea catfish
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Family:  Ariidae (Sea catfishes), subfamily: Ariinae
Max. size:  22.7 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  demersal; freshwater; brackish
Distribution:  Central America: Atlantic draining rivers from Panuco River basin in Mexico to Izabal Lake in Guatemala (Ref. 58032). Materials examined from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins, formerly treated as Cathorops aguadulce (e.g. Castro-Aguirre et al., 1999; Miller et al., 2005; Betancur-R. and Willink, 2007), are treated as Cathorops kailolae(Ref. 75004). Examination of more materials is needed to determine whether the population reported from other localities reported by Miller et al., 2005 from other localities (i.e. río Panuco, río Tecolutla, río Coatzacoalcos, and Gulf of Mexico) should be separated (Ref. 75004).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 1-1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-7; Anal soft rays: 21-21. Differs from all other species of Cathorops by having the following features: fleshy papillae intercalated with gill rakers on first two gill arches; posterior margin of pectoral-fin spine with long and conspicuous serrations (except in Cathorops kailolae, Cathorops melanopus, Cathorops multiradiatus, and Cathorops tuyra); gill rakers on first arch 14-16; and snout length 9.3-11.6% SL. Can be further separated from Cathorops belizensis by its longer supraoccipital process 11.5-16.3% SL (vs. 8.8-10.5% SL), larger orbital diameter 4.6-6.9 % SL (vs. 3.6-4.4% SL), and shorter interorbital distance 9.9-12.3 (vs. 12.9-15.1% SL); from Cathorops higuchii by its gill rakers on second arch 13-16 (vs. 17-21), and larger orbital diameter 4.6-6.9 (vs. 3.3-4.4% SL); from Cathorops kailolae by its longer distance from tip of snout to dorsal-fin origin 39.0-40.7 (vs. 33.1- 38.0% SL); from Cathorops mapale species group by its gill rakers on second arch 13-16 (vs. 17-21); from Cathorops melanopus by its longer distance from tip of snout to dorsal-fin origin 39.0-40.7 (vs. 30.0-32.6% SL), and longer distance from tip of snout to posterior margin of dorsomedian groove of neurocranium 22.9-26.4 (vs. 17.9-19.1% SL) (Ref. 75004).
Biology:  Found in large to medium-sized rivers, lagoons and small drainages. Typically inhabits freshwaters, but may also occur in marine waters (Ref. 75004).
IUCN Red List Status: Not Evaluated (N.E.) Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  traumatogenic
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