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References using Epinephelus akaara
Ref No. Description Page
000063  ASIH, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists,1984 Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. Spec. Publ. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. 1:ix, 760 p.
000171  Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter,1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p.
000559  Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino,1984 The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). 129;pl.115
001830  Eschmeyer, W.N.,1990 Catalog of the genera of recent fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA. 697 p.
002120  Thurston, R.V. and P.C. Gehrke,1993 Respiratory oxygen requirements of fishes: description of OXYREF, a data file based on test results reported in the published literature. p. 95-108. In R.C. Russo & R.V. Thurston (eds.) Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality Management. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Sacramento, California, USA, September 18-19, 1990. US Environmental Protection Agency EPA/600/R-93/157.
002675  Wu, R.S.S. and N.Y.S. Woo,1984 Respiratory responses and tolerance to hypoxia in two marine teleosts, Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel) and Mylio macrocephalus (Basilewsky). Hydrobiologia 119:209-217.
002852  Chan, W.L.,1968 Marine fishes of Hong Kong. Part 1. Government Press, Hong Kong.
003691  FAO Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Service,1991 Aquaculture production (1986-1989). FAO Fish. Circ. 815, Rev. 3. 141 p.
004787  Randall, J.E. and P.C. Heemstra,1991 Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (20):332 p. 91;pl.VIIA;fig.36-7
004931  FAO,1992 FAO yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. Vol. 70: 1990. FAO Fish. Ser. 38:647 p.
005222  Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall,1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. 106;fig.245;pl.7d
005969  Kotlyar, A.N.,1984 Dictionary of names of marine fishes on the six languages. All Union Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscow. 288 p. 73
007101  Li, J., H. Zhou, B. Xu and Y. Ding,1988 A preliminary study on the growth of red grouper. Mar. Csi. Haiyang Kexue (4):53-57. 53-57
007306  FAO Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Service,1993 Aquaculture production (1985-1991). FAO Fish. Circ. 815, Rev. 5. 213 p. 57
008984  FAO,1994 FAO Yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. Vol. 74: 1992. FAO Fish. Ser. 43:677 p.
009137  Masuda, H. and G.R. Allen,1993 Meeresfische der Welt - GroƟ-Indopazifische Region. Tetra Verlag, Herrenteich, Melle. 528 p. 116
009902  Okiyama, M.,1993 An atlas of the early stage fishes in Japan. Koeltz Scientific Books, Germany. 1154 p. 413-414
012087  Morton, B.,1979 The coastal seafood of Hong Kong. p. 125-150. In B.S. Morton (ed.) The future of the Hong Kong seashore Oxford University Press, News Building, Nort Point, Hong Kong. 130
012092  Wong, C.,1982 Harvesting and marketing of cultured marine fish in Hong Kong. p. 137-140. In R.D. Guerrero III and V. Soesanto, Report of the training course on small-scale pen and cage culture for finfish, 26-31 Oct. 1981, Laguna, Philippines, and 1-13 Nov. 1981, Aberdeen, Hong Kong. SCS/Gen/82/34. 137
012108  Garibaldi, L.,1996 List of animal species used in aquaculture. FAO Fish. Circ. 914. 38 p. 8
012228  FAO,1996 Aquaculture production statistics 1985-1994. FAO Fish. Circ. 815. 189 p.
012625  Sadovy, Y.,1998 Patterns of reproduction in marine fishes of Hong Kong and adjacent waters. p. 261-274. In B. Morton (ed.) The marine biology of the South China Sea. Proceedings of the Third International Conference of the Marine Biology of the South China Sea, Hong Kong 28 October-1 November 1996. Hong Kong University Press: Hong Kong.
012846  Nguyen, H.P., P. Le Trong, N.T. Nguyen, P.D. Nguyen, N. Do Thi Nhu and V.L. Nguyen,1995 Checklist of marine fishes in Vietnam. Vol. 3. Order Perciformes, Suborder Percoidei, and Suborder Echeneoidei. Science and Technics Publishing House, Vietnam. 62
026066  Randall, J.E., H. Ida, K. Kato, R.L. Pyle and J.L. Earle,1997 Annotated checklist of inshore fishes of the Ogasawara Islands. Nat. Sci. Mus. Monogr. (11):1-74. 18
028618  Randall, J.E.,1997 Randall's tank photos. Collection of 10,000 large-format photos (slides) of dead fishes. Unpublished.
031075  Ni, I.-H. and K.-Y. Kwok,1999 Marine fish fauna in Hong Kong waters. Zool. Stud. 38(2):130-152. 138
031517  Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao and C.F. Lai (eds.),1999 Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1028 p.
031522  Gibbons, S.,1999 Collect fish on stamps. Stanley Gibbons Ltd., London and Ringwood. 418 p.
031845  Xu, G.,1985 Fish mariculture studies in China. ICLARM Newsl. 8(4):5-6. 5-6
031982  Anonymous,1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
033067  Leung, A.W.-Y.,1994 The fish fauna of Lobster Bay, Cape D'Aguilar, Hong Kong. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Hong Kong. 65 p. + figs., tables, refs.
034166  Lau, P.P.F. and L.W.H. Li,2000 Identification guide to fishes in the live seafood trade of the Asia-Pacific region. World Wide Fund for Nature, Hong Kong. 137 p. 32
035508  Anonymous,2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
036648  Randall, J.E. and K.K.P. Lim (eds.),2000 A checklist of the fishes of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. (8):569-667. 609
036670  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
038732  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
039231  Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall,1999 Serranidae. p. 2442-2547. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). Rome, FAO. 2069-2790 p.
040637  IGFA,2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA.
040919  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.
043510  Shao, K.-T., P.-H. Kao and C.C. Lee,1990 Fish fauna and species composition in the waters around Tunghsiao, northwest Taiwan. to be filled. 83
043515  Shao, K.-T., J.-P. Chen, P.-H. Kao and C.-Y. Wu,1993 Fish fauna and their geographical distribution along the western coast of Taiwan. Acata Zoologica Taiwanica 4(2):113-140. 130
045592  An, Y.R. and S.H. Huh,2002 Species composition and seasonal variation of fish assemblage in the coastal water off Gadeok-do, Korea. J. Korean Fish. Soc. 35(6):715-722. 717
046970  Van Quan, N.,2003 List of 400 marine Vietnamese names from museum records of Haiphong Institute of Oceanography. Personal Communication, May 2003. (word file).
047843  Huang, Z.,2001 Marine species and their distribution in China's seas. p. 404-463. Vertebrata. Smithsonian Institution, Florida, USA. 598 p. 426
055073  Chen, C.-H.,2004 Checklist of the fishes of Penghu. FRI Special Publication No. 4. 175 p. 60
055212  Ho, S.K.,1980 The biology of red grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Temminck and Schlegel) in Hong Kong with special emphasis on induced breeding and cultivation. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. M. Phil. thesis.
058108  Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences,2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
058534  Nguyen, N.T. and V.Q. Nguyen,2006 Biodiversity and living resources of the coral reef fishes in Vietnam marine waters. Science and Technology Publishing House, Hanoi. 54
075549  FAO-FIES,2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
077001  Kim, I.S., Y. Choi, C.L. Lee, Y.J. Lee, B.J. Kim and J.H. Kim,2005 Illustrated book of Korean fishes. Kyo-Hak Pub Co. Seoul. 615p. (in Korean).
083882  FAO-FIES,2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
089707  Craig, M.T., YJ. Sadovy de Mitcheson and P.C. Heemstra,2011 Groupers of the world: a field and market guide. North America: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group. 356 p. 75
090062  FAO-FIES,2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
095632  FAO-FIES,2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
101110  FAO-FIES,2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
115257  FAO-FIES,2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
119494  Wilson, K.D.P.,2003 Artificial reefs and reef fish in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Friends of the Country Parks & Cosmos Books Ltd., 176p. 67
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