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Larvae Information Summary for  Oreochromis niloticus
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Main Ref: Trewavas, E. 1983
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 8 6    
Preanal L. % TL        
Place of development in mouth (mouthbrooders)
Larval area Northwestern Pacific (Japan)
Yolk-sac spherical   pigmented Ref:  
Yolk   Oil globules  
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head
The caudal network of blood vessels which is the main respiratory organ is less developed and of shorter duration. The larva has a large yolk mass and their mouth is covered over with a thin membrane. Pigmentation of the hatchling is restricted to the head and the eyes are fully pigmented. The yolk sac was fully absorbed at stage 20.
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal normal (not striking)
Striking feature none
Shape of gut elongated
Gas bladder   early invisible late visible
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Pectorals normal without melanophores
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent)  
At stage 16, the retinal pigment was already developed. Pectoral fin-buds appeared at a stage when the head was about 1 mm long. The mouth opened at stage 24 (head 2 mm).
Meristic characters
  max min mod Ref.
Total number of myomeres        
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae    Ref. 
max 13.5 2 Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Luna,Susan M. - 19.10.90
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 03.04.03
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