Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical
Western Pacific: southern Hokkaido, Japan to the Philippines.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 8 - ? cm
Max length : 36.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96735); max. published weight: 2.8 kg (Ref. 40637)
Found near shore, on rock bottom (Ref. 11230). Commercially cultured in Japan. Viviparous (Ref. 34817). Anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
The species is viviparous (Ref. 5475).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.2 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 274 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00932 - 0.01414), b=3.10 (3.04 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 5.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .