Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica - 80 m (Ref. 5217), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 37°N - 7°N
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, North Carolina (USA), and northern Gulf of Mexico to southeastern Brazil (Ref. 57756). Indo-Pacific (Ref. 26165).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3790); common length : 10.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3790)
Spine dorsali (totale): 2; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 27-29; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 27 - 29. Profile from snout to origin of first dorsal spine nearly straight (Ref. 26938). No enlarged spines on caudal peduncle, but males with an elongate patch of bristle-like spinules (Ref. 13442).
More common in offshore areas, including floating seaweed and flotsam, and around islands. Juveniles are associated with floating seaweeds (Ref. 3790). Probably feeds on plants and small invertebrates (Ref. 3790). Generally considered as trash fish, rarely consumed (Ref. 3790).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., B.B. Collette and B.E. Luckhurst, 1999. Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 4. 424 p. (Ref. 35505)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Pesca: pesca di sussistenza
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.7 - 28.5, mean 26.1 °C (based on 652 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00948 - 0.02775), b=2.91 (2.76 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 46.6 [16.3, 122.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.07 [0.57, 2.29] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.9, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.172 [0.076, 0.361] g/100g ; Selenium = 14 [6, 36] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35 [9, 138] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.1 [0.6, 1.9] mg/100g (wet weight);