Hypanus americanus, Southern stingray : fisheries, gamefish

Hypanus americanus (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928)

Southern stingray
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Hypanus americanus
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Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes(Släkte, Arter) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (hajar och rockor) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Dasyatinae
  More on authors: Hildebrand & Schroeder.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; marina; brackvatten revassocierade; djupintervall - 53 m (Ref. 13608), usually - 4 m (Ref. 55205).   Subtropical; 0°C - ; 36°N - 4°S, 100°W - 37°W (Ref. 55205)

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to southern Brazil, including the Antilles (Ref. 3168).

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm 85.0, range 75 - 80 cm
Max length : 200 cm WD hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3168); common length : 90.0 cm WD hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3168); publicerad maxvikt: 135.6 kg (Ref. 40637); rapporterad maxålder: 28 år (Ref. 53968)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

Disk has sharp outer corners and irregular row of short spines on upper surface (Ref. 26938). Disk usually uniform dark brown above, grayer in young. Ventral finfold on tail long and high, dorsal finfold absent (Ref. 7251). Upper surface of disc gray, dark or olivaceous brown or olive green. Lower surface of disc white or whitish with an edging of gray or brown (Ref. 6902).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Found on sandy bottoms, seagrass beds, lagoons and the reef face (Ref. 12951). Common in bays and estuaries (Ref. 7251). Observed singly, in pairs and in aggregations (Ref. 12951). Buries in the sand during the day and forages at night, usually in seagrass beds (Ref. 12951). Feeds mainly on bivalves and worms and also takes shrimps, crabs and small fishes (Ref. 3168). Feeds by creating depressions in the sand to expose invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 9710). Ovoviviparous, with 3-4 in a litter (Ref. 12951). May be found in cleaning stations where they are attended to by the bluehead wrasse and Spanish hogfish (Ref. 12951). Equipped with a well-developed serrated spine and capable of inflicting a painful laceration. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Male mounts on female dorsally (Ref. 12951).

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Medarbetare

Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

  Near Threatened (NT) (A2bd); Date assessed: 21 June 2019

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)





Human uses

Fiskeri: kommersiell; sportfisk: ja
FAO - fiskeri: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ytterligare information

Länder
FAO områden
Ekosystem
Förekomster
Utplanteringar
Stocks
Ekologi
Föda
Födoslag
Födointag
Näringsinnehåll
Populärnamn
synonymer
Metabolik
Predatorer
Ekotoxikologi
Reproduktion
Könsmognad
Lek
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Ägg
Egg development
Age/Size
Tillväxt
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometri
Morfologi
Larver
Larvdynamik
Rekrytering
Abundans
BRUVS
referenser
Vattenbruk
Vattenbruksprofil
Avelslinjer
Genetik
Allelfrekvenser
Ärftlighet
Sjukdomar
Behandling
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Medarbetare
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Ljud
Ciguatera
Hastighet
Simsätt
Gälyta
Otoliths
Hjärnstorlek
Syn

Verktyg

Special reports

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Internet-källor

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Släkte, Arter | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - fiskeri: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationella databaser | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Offentliga akvarier | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, sök | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.7 - 28.1, mean 27.3 °C (based on 795 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00265 - 0.01571), b=3.06 (2.86 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 4,5-14 år (tmax=28; Fec=3-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 8.12 [1.09, 47.59] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.705 [0.117, 2.704] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.9 [19.3, 24.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.244 [0.069, 0.814] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.1 [3.1, 72.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.3 [3.6, 129.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.688 [0.171, 2.841] mg/100g (wet weight);