分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
板鰓亜鋼(サメとエイ類) (sharks and rays)
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海 底生の; 深さの範囲 1 - 183 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 18°N, 98°W - 80°W
Western Central Atlantic: Florida, USA and the Gulf of Mexico.
サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.0 cm WD オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 7251)
形態学 | 形態計測学
Disk diamond-shaped; round dark spot surrounded by pale ring on base of each pectoral fin. (Ref. 26938). No small pale or dark spots on upper surface of disk, but sometimes dark blotches. No scapular spines, 1 middorsal row of spines. Distance from ocellus to eye usually less than or about equal to distance between ocelli. Snout with a clear area on each side (Ref. 7251). Upper surface rich chocolate or coffee brown, translucent on either side fo rostral cartilage. Lower surface plain white (Ref. 6902).
Occur from near shore to 183 m depth at temperatures ranging from 14 to 28° C but it is most common inshore of 91 m at 16-25°C. Young occur in shallow bays. Adults tend to live offshore (Ref. 26938). Feed mainly on decapod crustaceans and to a lesser extent on other benthic invertebrates and fishes. Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 6.3 cm long and 3.8 cm wide (Ref. 41359).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. oung may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
水産業: 少数商業の; 餌: occasionally
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.2 - 27.5, mean 24.9 °C (based on 230 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00295 (0.00133 - 0.00653), b=3.23 (3.06 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 低い, ４．５年～１４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (Fec assumed to be <100).
弱み (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .