Osmerus eperlanus, European smelt : fisheries

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Osmerus eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European smelt
إضافة ملاحظاتك Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Osmerus eperlanus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
ارفع صور و مقاطع فيديو
Pictures | صور قوقل
Image of Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)
Osmerus eperlanus
Picture by Meyer, T.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, الانواع) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Osmeriformes (Freshwater smelts) > Osmeridae (Smelts)
Etymology: Osmerus: Greek, osme = odorous; similar to freshly cut cucumbers (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; بحري; المياه العذبة; مياه مخلوطة; أسماك صاعدة (Ref. 51243), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 4545).   Temperate; 70°N - 43°N, 9°W - 55°E

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

North Atlantic: White Sea southward to western coasts of France including Baltic Sea, southern North Sea and British Isles (Ref. 4545); the Gironde estuary is the southern limit of his distribution (Ref. 51442). Landlocked populations in lakes of coastal areas of North, Baltic, White and Barents Sea. North to about 68° N in Scandinavia (Ref. 59043). The former nominal subspecies Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus is recorded from the coasts and drainage of White and Barents Seas westward through Baltic Sea to Denmark and it is primarily lacustrine (Ref. 4545). The former subspecies Osmerus eperlanus schonfoldi (Rutty 1772) is sympatric with the nominate subspecies in parts of Poland, Denmark and the Baltic, and it is primarily anadromous (Ref. 4545).

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 12.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 4545); common length : 16.5 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 682); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 178.00 g (Ref. 6114); العمر: 10 سنين (Ref. 682)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 0; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 9-12; شوكة شرجية 0; أشعه شرجية لينه: 12 - 16; فقرات: 55 - 62. Body long and slim (Ref. 4545). Head rather pointed (Ref. 4545). Snout pointed (Ref. 4545). Upper jaw reaching to hind margin of eye, lower jaw projecting a little (Ref. 4545, Ref. 51442). Teeth in lower jaw larger than those of upper, strong teeth on tongue and canines on vomer (Ref. 4545). Dorsal fin origin behind base of pelvic fins (Ref. 4545). Incomplete lateral line is developed near the head (Ref. 51442). Dorsal side light olive green, flanks silver stripe, belly creamy white (Ref. 4545).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Inhabits marine waters, estuaries and large lakes (Ref. 59043). A midwater species, rarely far from shore, primarily anadromous in the west and lacustrine in the east; shoaling at least during spawning season (Ref. 4545). The essential part of its life is spend in the estuarine zone, with just short incursions in the littoral zone (Ref. 51442). The migratory form is grouping together in the estuarine zone for reproduction (Ref. 51442). Enters the rivers for spawning on sandy or gravely bottoms (Ref. 13696). Spawns in tributaries of lakes or along shallow shores of lakes and rivers on sand, gravel, stones and plant material, preferably in fast-flowing water (Ref. 59043). Reproduction takes place between February and May, depending on the water-temperature (Ref. 51442). Produces 8,000-50,000 yellow eggs with a diameter of 0.6-0.9 mm which adhere to the bottom (Ref. 13696, Ref. 51442). Eggs hatch in 3-5 weeks and the larvae descend to the estuarine zone (Ref. 13696, Ref. 51442). Feeds on shrimps and small crustaceans; larger individuals feed on small fish (Ref. 30578, Ref. 51442). Utilized as foodfish, smoked, as bait and fish oil (Ref. 35388). Smells like cucumber (Ref. 37032, 51442). Locally threatened due to pollution and barriers to migration (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Spawns in lower reaches of streams, deeper parts of lake in sand bottoms (Ref. 682). Spawning takes place with the melting of snow (Ref. 682). Many individuals die after the spawning (Ref. 682). Migratory form generally with rapid growth, more eggs, live longer; individuals feeding on fish grow bigger (Ref. 682). ). Becomes sexually mature in 3-4 years (15-18 cm) in brackish populations, 1-2 years (8-10 cm) in freshwater.

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Harmless





استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: تجاري
FAO - مصائد: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | البحر حولنا

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مراجع
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سلالات
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Nutrients
Mass conversion
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مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.5 - 12, mean 9.6 °C (based on 1010 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00268 - 0.00679), b=3.17 (3.03 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.42 se; based on food items.
المرونه (Ref. 120179):  وسيط, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع 1.4-4.4 سنة (K=0.15-0.25; tm=2-4; tmax=10; Fec=10,000).
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
فئة السعر (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 48.8 [18.7, 134.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.561 [0.265, 1.288] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.4 [13.3, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 1.7 [0.7, 4.2] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.6 [5.1, 31.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.2 [8.7, 117.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.834 [0.498, 1.470] mg/100g (wet weight);