Osmerus eperlanus, European smelt : fisheries

You can sponsor this page

Osmerus eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European smelt
個人による観察記録の追加 Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Osmerus eperlanus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your 写真 and ビデオ
Pictures | グーグルの画像
Image of Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)
Osmerus eperlanus
Picture by Meyer, T.

分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Osmeriformes (Freshwater smelts) > Osmeridae (Smelts)
Etymology: Osmerus: Greek, osme = odorous; similar to freshly cut cucumbers (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の; 昇流魚 (Ref. 51243), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 4545).   Temperate; 70°N - 43°N, 9°W - 55°E

分布 国々 | 国連食糧農業機関の区域 | エコシステム | 事件 | Point map | 導入 | Faunafri

North Atlantic: White Sea southward to western coasts of France including Baltic Sea, southern North Sea and British Isles (Ref. 4545); the Gironde estuary is the southern limit of his distribution (Ref. 51442). Landlocked populations in lakes of coastal areas of North, Baltic, White and Barents Sea. North to about 68° N in Scandinavia (Ref. 59043). The former nominal subspecies Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus is recorded from the coasts and drainage of White and Barents Seas westward through Baltic Sea to Denmark and it is primarily lacustrine (Ref. 4545). The former subspecies Osmerus eperlanus schonfoldi (Rutty 1772) is sympatric with the nominate subspecies in parts of Poland, Denmark and the Baltic, and it is primarily anadromous (Ref. 4545).

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 12.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 4545); common length : 16.5 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 682); 最大公表体重: 178.00 g (Ref. 6114); 最大記録サイズ: 10 年 (Ref. 682)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 9-12; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 12 - 16; 脊つい: 55 - 62. Body long and slim (Ref. 4545). Head rather pointed (Ref. 4545). Snout pointed (Ref. 4545). Upper jaw reaching to hind margin of eye, lower jaw projecting a little (Ref. 4545, Ref. 51442). Teeth in lower jaw larger than those of upper, strong teeth on tongue and canines on vomer (Ref. 4545). Dorsal fin origin behind base of pelvic fins (Ref. 4545). Incomplete lateral line is developed near the head (Ref. 51442). Dorsal side light olive green, flanks silver stripe, belly creamy white (Ref. 4545).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Inhabits marine waters, estuaries and large lakes (Ref. 59043). A midwater species, rarely far from shore, primarily anadromous in the west and lacustrine in the east; shoaling at least during spawning season (Ref. 4545). The essential part of its life is spend in the estuarine zone, with just short incursions in the littoral zone (Ref. 51442). The migratory form is grouping together in the estuarine zone for reproduction (Ref. 51442). Enters the rivers for spawning on sandy or gravely bottoms (Ref. 13696). Spawns in tributaries of lakes or along shallow shores of lakes and rivers on sand, gravel, stones and plant material, preferably in fast-flowing water (Ref. 59043). Reproduction takes place between February and May, depending on the water-temperature (Ref. 51442). Produces 8,000-50,000 yellow eggs with a diameter of 0.6-0.9 mm which adhere to the bottom (Ref. 13696, Ref. 51442). Eggs hatch in 3-5 weeks and the larvae descend to the estuarine zone (Ref. 13696, Ref. 51442). Feeds on shrimps and small crustaceans; larger individuals feed on small fish (Ref. 30578, Ref. 51442). Utilized as foodfish, smoked, as bait and fish oil (Ref. 35388). Smells like cucumber (Ref. 37032, 51442). Locally threatened due to pollution and barriers to migration (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Spawns in lower reaches of streams, deeper parts of lake in sand bottoms (Ref. 682). Spawning takes place with the melting of snow (Ref. 682). Many individuals die after the spawning (Ref. 682). Migratory form generally with rapid growth, more eggs, live longer; individuals feeding on fish grow bigger (Ref. 682). ). Becomes sexually mature in 3-4 years (15-18 cm) in brackish populations, 1-2 years (8-10 cm) in freshwater.

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 123251)

  軽度懸念 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless





Human uses

水産業: 商業
FAO - 水産業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

より多くの情報

共通名の
類義語
代謝
捕食動物
生態毒性
繁殖
成熟
放精
卵の集合体
生産力

卵の開発
参考文献
水産養殖
水産養殖の紹介
緊張
遺伝子の
対立遺伝子頻度
遺伝
病気
行列
Nutrients
Mass conversion
協力者
画像
Stamps, Coins Misc.

シガテラ(食中毒の名前)
速度
泳ぐ 型式
カマ
Otoliths

視覚

用具

特記事項

XMLをダウンロードして下さい

インターネットの情報源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: 部類, | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 水産業: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: ゲノム, ヌクレオチド | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国のデーターベース | OsteoBase: skull, spine | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 生命の木 | Wikipedia: 行く, 検索する | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物に関する記録

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.5 - 12, mean 9.6 °C (based on 1010 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00268 - 0.00679), b=3.17 (3.03 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.42 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.15-0.25; tm=2-4; tmax=10; Fec=10,000).
弱み (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 48.8 [18.7, 134.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.561 [0.265, 1.288] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.4 [13.3, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 1.7 [0.7, 4.2] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.6 [5.1, 31.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.2 [8.7, 117.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.834 [0.498, 1.470] mg/100g (wet weight);