Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 10°N - 8°N
Eastern Central Pacific: Mexico, Costa Rica and Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9271); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9271)
Body long and thick; head depressed and narrow (3.5 to 4 times in SL); snout narrow, truncate to rounded, moderately prominent; eyes small (6.5 to 9.5 times in head length); palate with four bands on conical teeth which become fused in adults; first gill arch with 7 to 8 gill rakers; body shiny, greenish blue with a lighter (even white) belly; barbels white with dark edges (Ref. 55763).
Found in coastal waters (Ref. 9271). Also caught with other artisanal gear (Ref. 9271). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9271). Demersal species in coastal waters (Ref. 55763).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kailola, P.J. and W.A. Bussing, 1995. Ariidae. Bagres marinos. p. 860-886. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9271)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00269 - 0.01023), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .