Trachurus trachurus, Atlantic horse mackerel : fisheries, gamefish, bait
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Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Atlantic horse mackerel
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Trachurus trachurus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Trachurus trachurus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Carangiformes (Jacks) 鱸形目 (Jacks) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) 鰺科 (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 54256), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 54256).   亞熱帶的; 67°N - 38°S, 26°W - 42°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, round the coast to Maputo.
地中海與東大西洋的: 挪威到南非, 圓岸邊到馬普托。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 23.9, range 21 - 30 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3197); common length : 22.0 cm FL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3397); 最大體重: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 9; 背的軟條 (總數): 30-36; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 24 - 32. Bluish green, grey or black above, silvery white below; opercle with black spot (Ref. 3197). Lateral scales tall and keeled. Gill cover with a distinct black spot. First dorsal fin tall (Ref. 35388).
藍綠色的﹐灰色的或黑色的上方, 下面銀白色的; 鰓蓋有黑色的斑點。 (參考文獻 3197) 側面的鱗片高的而且龍骨。 鰓蓋具有一個明顯的黑色斑點。 第一背鰭高的.(參考文獻 35388)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults form large schools in coastal areas with sandy substrate. They feed on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Females lay 140,000 eggs, which hatch into 5mm long larvae (Ref. 35388). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Divided into two stocks: West stock and North Sea stock. West stock spawns in a belt from the Biscay to Ireland in early spring, migrates north and eastwards to southern Norway and northern North Sea. North Sea stock spawns in the southern North Sea in summer, migrates to central North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat.

成魚在沿岸區域中形成大群魚群,砂質底部的地方。 捕食魚,甲殼動物與頭足類動物。 分批產卵者是.(參考文獻 51846) 雌性生下 140,000個卵, 孵化成 5個 mm 長仔魚.(參考文獻 35388) 生鮮使用,煙燻., 罐裝及冷凍; 能被油炸, 火烤而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 分開成二分枝.: 西方的分枝與北海分枝。 西方的分枝在初春在帶從 Biscay 到愛爾蘭產卵, 移動北方與向東到挪威南部與北海北部。 北海分枝在夏天在北海南部產卵, 迴游到中央的北海,史卡基拉克海域與 Kattegat。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

地中海與東大西洋的: 挪威到南非, 圓岸邊到馬普托。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | 合作者

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 誘餌: usually
FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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網路資源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因組, 核甘 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公眾的水族館 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia: , 搜尋 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 10.6 - 16.6, mean 13.3 °C (based on 165 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00760 - 0.00910), b=2.95 (2.93 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.5 (5.1 - 7.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 27 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.12-0.16; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=70,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.72, Based on 11 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 183 [122, 262] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.78 [2.43, 5.83] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.8 [19.3, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.354 [0.261, 0.472] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.2 [23.6, 44.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.9 [4.2, 51.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.66 [1.29, 2.17] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.