Trachurus trachurus, Atlantic horse mackerel : fisheries, gamefish, bait

Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Atlantic horse mackerel
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Trachurus trachurus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Trachurus trachurus
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes(Gênero, Espécies) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Carangiformes (Jacks) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 54256), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 54256).   Subtropical; 67°N - 38°S, 26°W - 42°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, round the coast to Maputo.

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 23.9, range 21 - 30 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 3197); common length : 22.0 cm FL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 3397); peso máx. publicado: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 9; Raios dorsais (total): 30-36; Espinhos anais 3; Raios anais : 24 - 32. Bluish green, grey or black above, silvery white below; opercle with black spot (Ref. 3197). Lateral scales tall and keeled. Gill cover with a distinct black spot. First dorsal fin tall (Ref. 35388).

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Adults form large schools in coastal areas with sandy substrate. They feed on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Females lay 140,000 eggs, which hatch into 5mm long larvae (Ref. 35388). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Divided into two stocks: West stock and North Sea stock. West stock spawns in a belt from the Biscay to Ireland in early spring, migrates north and eastwards to southern Norway and northern North Sea. North Sea stock spawns in the southern North Sea in summer, migrates to central North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat.

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Colaboradores

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 123251)

  Vulnerável, ver Livro Vermelho da UICN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: altamente comercial; peixe esportivo: sim; isca: usually
FAO - pescarias: desembarques, perfil da espécie; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ferramentas

Relatórios especiais

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Fontes da internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Checar Observador de Peixes (FishWatcher) | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gênero, Espécies | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - pescarias: desembarques, perfil da espécie; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genoma, nucleotídeo | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de dados nacionais | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Aquários públicos | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Árvore da vida | Wikipedia: Ir para, procura | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Registro zoológico

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 10.6 - 16.6, mean 13.3 °C (based on 165 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00760 - 0.00910), b=2.95 (2.93 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.5 (5.1 - 7.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 27 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.12-0.16; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=70,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.72, Based on 11 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 183 [122, 262] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.78 [2.43, 5.83] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.8 [19.3, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.354 [0.261, 0.472] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.2 [23.6, 44.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.9 [4.2, 51.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.66 [1.29, 2.17] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.