分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(属, 种) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) 鱸形目 (Cichlids, convict blennies)
(Cichlids) 麗魚科 (Cichlids)
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335); niloticus: From "Filhoa" = the Amharic word for "hot spring" (Ref. 2). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 20 m (Ref. 32849), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 34290). 熱帶; 14°C - 33°C (Ref. 3); 32°N - 5°S, 17°W - 38°E
Africa: naturally occurring in coastal rivers of Israel (Ref. 5166), Nile basin (including lake Albert, Edward and Tana), Jebel Marra, Lake Kivu, Lake Tanganyika, Awash River, various Ethiopian lakes, Omo River system, Lake Turkana, Suguta River and Lake Baringo (Ref. 2). In West Africa natural distribution covers the basins of the Senegal, Gambia, Volta, Niger, Benue and Chad, with introduced specimens reported from various coastal basins (Ref. 53405). Widely introduced for aquaculture, with many existing strains. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction. The following subspecies were previously recognized: Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis, Oreochromis niloticus cancellatus, Oreochromis niloticus eduardianus, Oreochromis niloticus filoa, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus sugutae, Oreohromis niloticus tana and Oreohromis niloticus vulcani.
非洲: 以色列的沿海的河川; 尼羅河從下方艾伯特湖尼羅河到三角州; Jebel Marra; 查德湖流域與河尼日，貝努埃河，佛塔河，甘比亞與塞內加爾。 對於水產業廣泛地引入, 有許多現有的緊張。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm 18.6, range 6 - 28 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 4967); 最大体重: 4.3 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年龄: 9 年 (Ref. 164)
背棘 (总数): 15 - 18; 背的软条 (总数): 11-13; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 9 - 11; 脊椎骨: 30 - 32. Diagnosis: A large deep-bodied tilapia, with a relatively small head (Ref. 118638). Jaws of mature male not greatly enlarged, length of lower jaw 29-37% of head length; genital papilla of breeding male not tassellated (Ref. 2). Most distinguishing characteristic is the presence of regular vertical stripes throughout depth of caudal fin (Ref. 4967, 53405); at all life stages, the tailfin is marked with numerous thin vertical stripes; in smaller fishes, these are relatively wide and form an arc, and start at the base of the tailfin (Ref. 118638).Males are bluish pink, sometimes with a dark throat, belly, anal and pelvic fins; females are usually brownish, silvery/white beneath with around 10 thin vertical bars (Ref. 118638).
繁殖期的雄鱼的生殖乳突没有方格斑纹。 成熟雄鱼的颚不明显增大 (下颌 29-37% 的头长长度) 。 此鱼种的最显着特性是那在尾鳍的深度各处有规则的垂直斑纹.(参考文献 4967) 背鳍的边缘灰色或黑色的。 在尾鳍 7-12 中的纵带.
Occurs in a wide variety of freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, sewage canals and irrigation channels (Ref. 28714). Does not do well in pure salt water, but is able to survive in brackish water (Ref. 52307). Mainly diurnal. Feeds mainly on phytoplankton or benthic algae. Additionally, insect larvae are of some importance, as are aufwuchs and detritus; juveniles tend to be more omnivorous than adults (Ref. 52307). Oviparous (Ref. 205), ovophilic (Ref. 52307). A maternal mouthbrooder (Ref. 2, 52307, 118638), males dig simple pits in shallow water (Ref. 118638). Globally, the most important tilapia species in fish farming and supports major capture fisheries where established (Ref. 118638). It is generally highly invasive (Ref. 118638) and it is known to hybridise with many other Oreochromis species and for this reason further stocking has been banned in a number of countries, e.g. South Africa, Malawi and Zambia (Ref. 118638). Extended temperature range 8-42 °C, natural temperature range 13.5 - 33 °C (Ref. 3). Maximum depth from Ref. 34290. Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987).
出现于各式各样的淡水像河，湖，脏水管与灌溉峡道的栖息地。 (参考文献 28714) 主要日行性。 主要吃浮游植物或水底的藻类。 在市场上销售生鲜和冷冻.(参考文献 9987) 卵生的.(参考文献 205) 雌性的口孵.(参考文献 2) 扩大的温差 8- 42 °C, 自然温差 13.5- 33 °C.(参考文献 3)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Sexual maturity is reached at 3-6 months depending on temperature, reaching about 30 g. Reproduction occurs only when temperatures are over 20°C. Several yearly spawnings every 30 days. Females incubate eggs inside their mouths (approximately for a week) where larvae hatch and remain until the vitellus is reabsorved. Egg size 1.5 mm, larval length at hatching 4 mm.
Spawns in firm sand in water from 0.6 to 2 m deep of lakes (Ref. 2) and inshore waters (Ref. 55624). Males set up and defend territory which are visited by the females. Courtship lasts several hours. A single male probably fertilises the eggs of more than one female (Ref. 55624). Eggs are shed in batches in shallow nest and fertilized by male. Each batch of eggs is picked up into oral cavity by female. Females solely involved in broodcare. Female carries up to 200 eggs in her mouth where the larvae hatch and remain until after the yolk-sac is absorbed.非洲: 以色列的沿海的河川; 尼羅河從下方艾伯特湖尼羅河到三角州; Jebel Marra; 查德湖流域與河尼日，貝努埃河，佛塔河，甘比亞與塞內加爾。 對於水產業廣泛地引入, 有許多現有的緊張。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。
Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01591 - 0.02282), b=2.97 (2.93 - 3.01), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.9 (2.2 - 3.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 26 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.14-0.41; tm=1-2; tmax=9; Fec < 1,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 25.9 [10.8, 94.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.79 [0.63, 4.37] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [15.8, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.407 [0.178, 0.944] g/100g ; Selenium = 74.2 [34.4, 162.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 3.77 [0.68, 16.60] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.91 [0.80, 6.43] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.