Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; acqua dolce; salmastro demersale; anadromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 10 - 100 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 61°N - 36°N, 22°E - 54°E
Eurasia: Caspian, Black, Azov and Aegean Seas, ascending rivers to spawn. Occurrence in Albania needs confirmation. Introduced in Aral Sea. Artificially propagated (Ref. 6866). Probably extirpated from Aegean Sea and related river basins (Ref. 113969). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 120 - ? cm
Max length : 250 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 98365); common length : 125 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3397); peso massimo pubblicato: 80.0 kg (Ref. 9988); Età massima riportata: 27 anni (Ref. 6866)
Morfologia | Morfometria
Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 40-46; Raggi anali molli: 24 - 29. Snout long, pointed at tip. Lower lip not continuous, interrupted at center. Barbels short not reaching mouth but nearer to it than to tip of snout. Five rows of scutes, dorsal 11-14, lateral 30-36 on each side, ventral 10-11 on each side, with small bony stellate plates and smaller grains between main scute rows. Back dark grey to almost black, flanks lighter, belly white.
At the sea, it occurs in coastal and estuarine zones and forages on the bottom mostly on clayey sand and intensively in the middle and upper water layers (Ref. 59043). Found mainly near shore over sand and mud, stays at the bottom during the day and rises to the surface to feed at night. Feeds mainly on fish, also mollusks, crustaceans and worms (Ref. 3193). Spawns in strong-current habitats in main course of large and deep rivers, on stone or gravel bottom. Spawning also takes place on flooded river banks and if gravel bottom is not available, on sand or sandy clay. Juveniles stay in shallow riverine habitats during first summer (Ref. 59043). One of the three most important species for caviar; also utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Overfishing at the sea for meat and caviar will soon cause extinction of the natural populations and their survival can only depend on stocking (Ref. 59043).
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Pesca: commerciale; Acquacoltura: commerciale; Acquario: Acquari pubblici
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.6 - 15.9, mean 13.1 °C (based on 66 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00341 - 0.00928), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 18.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (K=0.06; tm=9; tmax=27; Fec=20,000-360,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.7 [12.6, 43.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.289 [0.180, 0.470] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [14.1, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.726 [0.362, 1.468] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.6 [15.0, 91.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 3.99 [1.26, 11.86] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.493 [0.339, 0.736] mg/100g (wet weight);