Salmo trutta, Sea trout : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758

Sea trout
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> Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salmo: Latin, salmo, Plinius = salmon (Ref. 45335);  trutta: trutta is a Latin name for trout (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の; 昇流魚 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 28 m (Ref. 101587), usually 1 - 2 m (Ref. 101587).   Subtropical; 18°C - 24°C (Ref. 12741); 71°N - 34°N, 25°W - 57°E

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Europe and Asia: Atlantic, North, White and Baltic Sea basins, from Spain to Chosha Bay (Russia). Found in Iceland and northernmost rivers of Great Britain and Scandinavia. In Rhône drainage, native only to Lake Geneva basin, which it entered after last glaciation. Native to upper Danube and Volga drainages. Introduced widely. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 19.3, range 1 - 600 cm
Max length : 140 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 682); common length : 72.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3397); 最大公表体重: 50.0 kg (Ref. 682); 最大記録サイズ: 38 年 (Ref. 32682)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 3 - 4; 背鰭 (合計): 10-15; 肛門の骨 3-4; 臀鰭: 9 - 14; 脊つい: 57 - 59. Fusiform body (Ref. 51442). Head little and pointed (Ref. 51442). Mouth large, extending mostly after the eye and has well developed teeth (Ref. 51442). Teeth on shaft of vomer numerous and strongly developed (Ref. 7251). Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Caudal peduncle thick and rounded (Ref. 51442). Little scales (Ref. 51442). Body is grey-blue colored with numerous spots, also below the lateral line (Ref. 51442). Blackish colored on upper part of body, usually orange on sides, surrounded by pale halos. Adipose fin with red margin.

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Found in streams, ponds, rivers and lakes (Ref. 5951). Individuals spend 1 to 5 years in fresh water and 6 months to 5 years in salt water (Ref. 51442). Juveniles mature in 3-4 years (Ref. 6885). Lacustrine populations undertake migration to tributaries and lake outlets to spawn, rarely spawning on stone, wave-washed lake shores. Spawns in rivers and streams with swift current, usually characterized by downward movement of water intro gravel (Ref. 59043). Spawning takes place normally more than one time (Ref. 51442). They prefer cold, well-oxygenated upland waters although their tolerance limits are lower than those of rainbow trout and favors large streams in the mountainous areas with adequate cover in the form of submerged rocks, undercut banks, and overhanging vegetation (Ref. 6465). Life history and spawning behavior is similar to the salmon Salmo salar (Ref. 51442). Each female produces about 10.000 eggs (Ref. 35388, Ref. 51442). Mainly diurnal (Ref. 682). Sea and lake trouts forage in pelagic and littoral habitats, while sea trouts mainly close to coast, not very far from estuary of natal river (Ref. 59043). Juveniles feed mainly on aquatic and terrestrial insects; adults on mollusks, crustaceans and small fish (Ref. 26523, Ref. 51442). Marketed fresh and smoked; eaten fried, broiled, boiled, cooked in microwave, and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Female covers the eggs by restirring the sand and fine gravel (Ref. 9696). After hatching at 12 mm, larval brown trout remain in the gravel for 2-3 weeks until they are about 25 mm long, when they emerge to begin feeding in the water column. Brown trout are territorial and begin establishing territories as juveniles. Juvenile trout from lake populations move from their natal inlets to lakes during the first 2 years of life (Ref. 6390).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Svetovidov, A.N., 1984. Salmonidae. p. 373-385. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 1. (Ref. 4779)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 123251)

  軽度懸念 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Potential pest





Human uses

水産業: 商業; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
FAO - 水産養殖: 代謝; 水産業: landings; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

用具

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.5 - 15.8, mean 10.1 °C (based on 918 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00771 - 0.00984), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.2 (2.8 - 7.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 16 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (rm=0.9; K=0.09-0.8; tmax=8; Fec=1,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.30 - 0.68, Based on 1 stock assessment.
弱み (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 33 [12, 104] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.91 [0.93, 7.43] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.0, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 1.09 [0.42, 3.17] g/100g ; Selenium = 23 [7, 78] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.95 [0.90, 37.45] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.681 [0.393, 1.149] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.