Salmo trutta, Sea trout : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758

Sea trout
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Classification / Names Tên thường gặp | Các synonym ( Các tên trùng) | Catalog of Fishes(Giống, Các loài) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salmo: Latin, salmo, Plinius = salmon (Ref. 45335);  trutta: trutta is a Latin name for trout (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Sinh thái học

; Biển; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ; di cư biển sông (để đẻ trứng) (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 0 - 28 m (Ref. 101587), usually 1 - 2 m (Ref. 101587).   Subtropical; 18°C - 24°C (Ref. 12741); 71°N - 34°N, 25°W - 57°E

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Europe and Asia: Atlantic, North, White and Baltic Sea basins, from Spain to Chosha Bay (Russia). Found in Iceland and northernmost rivers of Great Britain and Scandinavia. In Rhône drainage, native only to Lake Geneva basin, which it entered after last glaciation. Native to upper Danube and Volga drainages. Introduced widely. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age

Maturity: Lm 19.3, range 1 - 600 cm
Max length : 140 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 682); common length : 72.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 3397); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 50.0 kg (Ref. 682); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 38 các năm (Ref. 32682)

Short description Hình thái học | Sinh trắc học

Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 3 - 4; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 10-15; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3-4; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 9 - 14; Động vật có xương sống: 57 - 59. Fusiform body (Ref. 51442). Head little and pointed (Ref. 51442). Mouth large, extending mostly after the eye and has well developed teeth (Ref. 51442). Teeth on shaft of vomer numerous and strongly developed (Ref. 7251). Caudal fin with 18-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Caudal peduncle thick and rounded (Ref. 51442). Little scales (Ref. 51442). Body is grey-blue colored with numerous spots, also below the lateral line (Ref. 51442). Blackish colored on upper part of body, usually orange on sides, surrounded by pale halos. Adipose fin with red margin.

Sinh học     Tự điển (thí dụ epibenthic)

Found in streams, ponds, rivers and lakes (Ref. 5951). Individuals spend 1 to 5 years in fresh water and 6 months to 5 years in salt water (Ref. 51442). Juveniles mature in 3-4 years (Ref. 6885). Lacustrine populations undertake migration to tributaries and lake outlets to spawn, rarely spawning on stone, wave-washed lake shores. Spawns in rivers and streams with swift current, usually characterized by downward movement of water intro gravel (Ref. 59043). Spawning takes place normally more than one time (Ref. 51442). They prefer cold, well-oxygenated upland waters although their tolerance limits are lower than those of rainbow trout and favors large streams in the mountainous areas with adequate cover in the form of submerged rocks, undercut banks, and overhanging vegetation (Ref. 6465). Life history and spawning behavior is similar to the salmon Salmo salar (Ref. 51442). Each female produces about 10.000 eggs (Ref. 35388, Ref. 51442). Mainly diurnal (Ref. 682). Sea and lake trouts forage in pelagic and littoral habitats, while sea trouts mainly close to coast, not very far from estuary of natal river (Ref. 59043). Juveniles feed mainly on aquatic and terrestrial insects; adults on mollusks, crustaceans and small fish (Ref. 26523, Ref. 51442). Marketed fresh and smoked; eaten fried, broiled, boiled, cooked in microwave, and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Chín muồi sinh dục | Sự tái sinh sản | Đẻ trứng | Các trứng | Sự sinh sản | Ấu trùng

Female covers the eggs by restirring the sand and fine gravel (Ref. 9696). After hatching at 12 mm, larval brown trout remain in the gravel for 2-3 weeks until they are about 25 mm long, when they emerge to begin feeding in the water column. Brown trout are territorial and begin establishing territories as juveniles. Juvenile trout from lake populations move from their natal inlets to lakes during the first 2 years of life (Ref. 6390).

Main reference Upload your references | Các tài liệu tham khảo | Người điều phối | Người cộng tác

Svetovidov, A.N., 1984. Salmonidae. p. 373-385. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 1. (Ref. 4779)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest





Human uses

Các nghề cá: Tính thương mại; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; cá để chơi: đúng
FAO - Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Sản xuất; Các nghề cá: landings; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Biển chung quanh ta

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.5 - 15.8, mean 10.1 °C (based on 918 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00771 - 0.00984), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.2 (2.8 - 7.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 16 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179):  Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (rm=0.9; K=0.09-0.8; tmax=8; Fec=1,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.30 - 0.68, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 33 [12, 104] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.91 [0.93, 7.43] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.0, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 1.09 [0.42, 3.17] g/100g ; Selenium = 23 [7, 78] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.95 [0.90, 37.45] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.681 [0.393, 1.149] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.