Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 27°N - 13°N, 50°E - 67°E (Ref. 114953)
Northwest Indian Ocean: Socotra Is. to Pakistan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 78.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Found inshore in inner continental shelf. Males mature at ca 62 cm TL, born at ca. 18 cm TL; produces 1-6 pups (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Randall, J.E. and L.J.V. Compagno, 1995. A review of the guitarfishes of the genus Rhinobatos (Rajiformes: Rhinobatidae) from Oman, with description of a new species. Raffles Bull. Zool. 43(2):289-298. (Ref. 11293)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00152 - 0.00600), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .