Oreochromis mossambicus, Mozambique tilapia : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters 1852)

Mozambique tilapia
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Image of Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)
Oreochromis mossambicus
Male picture by Lovshin, L.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cichliformes (Cichlids, convict blennies) 鱸形目 (Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) 麗魚科 (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335);  mossambicus: From the Greek words oreos=of the mountains and chroma=color; mossambica describes the geographic area, Mozambique, to which the species is native (Ref. 79012).  More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 非产卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 12 m (Ref. 57895).   熱帶; 17°C - 35°C (Ref. 3); 11°S - 31°S, 19°E - 41°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Africa: Lower Zambezi, Lower Shiré and coastal plains from Zambezi delta to Algoa Bay. Occurs southwards to the Brak River in the eastern Cape and in the Transvaal in the Limpopo system (Ref. 6465). Widely introduced for aquaculture, but escaped and established itself in the wild in many countries, often outcompeting local species (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
非洲: 尚比西河下游, 雪利河下游與海岸的平原從尚比西河三角州到奧歌亞灣。 生存在凌波波河系統的東方的岬與南非德蘭士瓦中向南至 Brak 河.(參考文獻 6465) 廣泛地為水產業引入, 但是在許多國家中逃脫了而且在野外繁殖, 時常競爭驅逐地方種.(參考文獻 12217) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 15.4, range 6 - 28 cm
Max length : 39.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 21); common length : 35.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9987); 最大体重: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年龄: 11 年 (Ref. 164)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 15 - 18; 背的软条 (总数): 10-13; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 7 - 12; 脊椎骨: 28 - 31. Diagnosis: snout long; forehead with relatively large scales, starting with 2 scales between the eyes followed by 9 scales up to the dorsal fin (Ref. 3058, 3060). Adult males develop a pointed, duckbill-like snout (Ref. 52307) due to enlarged jaws, often causing the upper profile to become concave (Ref. 2, 7248, 12524, 13337, 52307), but upper profile convex in smaller specimens (Ref. 1870, 6460). Pharyngeal teeth very fine, the dentigerous area with narrow lobes, the blade in adults longer than dentigerous area; 28-31 vertebrae; 3 anal spines; 14-20 lower gill-rakers; genital papilla of males simple or with a shallow distal notch; caudal fin not densely scaled; female and non-breeding male silvery with 2-5 mid-lateral blotches and some of a more dorsal series; breeding male black with white lower parts of head and red margins to dorsal and caudal fins (Ref. 2).
鉴别: 吻长的; 具有大的鳞片前额, 出发有两个跟随着 9个鳞片的在眼之间的鳞片向上到背鳍.(参考文献 3058,3060) 雄性成鱼发育一个尖又像 duckbill 一样的吻。 (参考文献 52307) 描述: 中等深度-身体.(参考文献 7248,52307) 在稚鱼与雌性中的头部轮廓直线.(参考文献 7248) 成熟雄性的颚增大了, 造成一个凹的上面轮廓 (参考文献 2,7248,52307), 但是在较小的标本中的凸状.(参考文献 1870,6460) 嘴大的.(参考文献 1870,2989,53262,52307,54167) 下頜突出的; 唇厚的.(參考文獻 3058,3060) 嘴延伸到眼 (參考文獻 1870,2989,53262,54167,54759) 的前緣下面或稍微超過.(參考文獻 1870,2989,53262,54167) 在頰上的 2-3個成列的鱗片.(參考文獻 2,552,1870,2989,3058,3060,6460,53262,54167) 鱗片圓形的.(參考文獻 1870,2989,3058,4904,53262,54167) 在腹面上的鱗片小的, 胸部鱗片甚至比較小的.(參考文獻 3058) 在鰓蓋 (參考文獻 1870,53262) 上的大的鱗片, 在 3 列中.(參考文獻 54759) 在上半部側線中的 17-23個鱗片, 在較下面的部位中的 10-17.(參考文獻 1870,2989,3058,54167) 鰓耙短的 (參考文獻 1870,2989,54167) 與厚的.(參考文獻 54167) 背鰭棘幾乎相等的從第六的; 背鰭軟條稍微長度超過長的棘.(參考文獻 54167) 持續背棘最長的。 (參考文獻 1870,54167) 軟棘的部位背部的與臀鰭長而尖的 (參考文獻 1870,3058,3060,4904,53262), 尤其在雄性中.(參考文獻 44586) 胸鰭 (幾乎) 長達頭部 (參考文獻 1870,2989,53262,54167), 尖的 (參考文獻 1870,6460,53262,54759), 延伸到排洩孔 (參考文獻 6460,54167) 或到稍微超過臀鰭起點.(參考文獻 1870,2989,53262,54167,54759) 腹鰭的外部鰭條些微地生產, 延伸到排洩孔 (參考文獻 1870,54167) 或超過臀鰭起點.(參考文獻 1870,2989) 尾鰭不濃密地覆有鱗片的 (參考文獻 2), 有鱗的在基部的一半 (參考文獻 1870,6460,53262) 中,角有時圓的.(參考文獻 54167) 體色 基本身體顏色銀灰色的到灰綠色, 有時一個更多的 blusih 色彩頭部.(參考文獻 52307) 腹面略灰色的.(參考文獻 4904,54167) 背鰭光的刺狀部份有深色的雜斑。 (參考文獻 3058) 軟的背鰭與臀鰭, 與尾部的與腹鰭黑色的.(參考文獻 2989,3058,3060,54167) 胸鰭無色的.(參考文獻 3058,3060) 不明顯又深色的鰓蓋斑點呈現。 (參考文獻 1870,2989,3058,3060,53262,54167,54759) 垂直的鰭均勻的 (參考文獻 54167), 黑色的具有約略明顯的微白色的斑點 (參考文獻 552) 或者有大的或者在被把一個較深色的面給這些鰭的灰白的背景 (參考文獻 6460,54167) 上的小﹐融合的或非融合又深色的斑點.(參考文獻 6460) 雌性與非繁殖期的雄魚: 銀色的有 2-5個側面中央的斑塊與一些比較背部系列。 (參考文獻 2) 有時一系列的約略明顯的斑點沿著身體上面與下面的側邊上面的側線。 (參考文獻 54167) 繁殖期的雄魚: 均勻的深黃褐色 (參考文獻 4904,54167), 或黑色, 有白色的,頭部下半部 (參考文獻 2,4904,7248,54167),包括咽喉,下唇 , 頰與 oppercles 的下部, 但是有深藍色到黑色的基底到咽喉 (參考文獻 52307), 與紅色的邊緣到背鰭與尾鰭鰭.(參考文獻 2,7248,52307) 尾鰭有時可以完全地出現紅色。 (參考文獻 52307) 頂端背部的與尾葉的末端淡黃色的.(參考文獻 4904,54167) 臀鰭深灰色, 有時有細的紅色邊緣; 不成對的鰭通常展現呈綠色到銀彩虹色的點。 (參考文獻 52307) 雌性: 基本上銀灰色在身體上有一些深色又不規則的點或區塊.(參考文獻 52307) 稚魚: 身體銀色的 (參考文獻 7248) 或黃褐色的, 在腹面上的光.(參考文獻 54167) 鱗片有深色的外部邊緣。 (參考文獻 54167) 在身體 (參考文獻 6460,7248,39866,54167) 上的 6-8個或更多不明顯的深色交叉的橫帶, 常見於附加到 2 列黑色的斑點中.(參考文獻 54167) 不明顯的深色鰓蓋斑點.(參考文獻 6460,54167) 在前面鰭條的基底的黑色斑點軟的背部與 1-2 微白色的斑點被深色條紋隔絕了; 肛門的深色在基底有一淡的外部一半的; 尾部的深色在基底, 在中心中的光, 一個黑色的外部脊.(參考文獻 54167) 橫過的在軟的背鰭與臀鰭與 2-3條橫帶上的斜的條紋尾部的.(參考文獻 6460) 幼魚有在最後背棘的基底後面的一個卵形的黑色斑點。 (參考文獻 552)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults thrive in standing waters (Ref. 7248, 12501). Inhabits reservoirs, rivers, creeks, drains, swamps and tidal creeks; commonly over mud bottoms, often in well-vegetated areas (Ref. 44894). Also found in warm weedy pools of sluggish streams, canals, and ponds (Ref. 5723). Most common in blind estuaries and coastal lakes (Ref. 32693), but usually absent from permanently open estuaries and open sea (Ref. 6465) and from fast-flowing waters (Ref. 7248, 12501). Normally not found at high altitudes (Ref. 6465). Able to survive extreme reduction of temporary water bodies (Ref. 2, 27445). Highly euryhaline (Ref. 2, 3, 23, 58, 61, 6465, 12501, 12522, 12524, 13337, 27445, 55352). Grows and reproduces in fresh-, brackish and seawater (Ref. 2, 21, 23, 61, 5214, 27445, 36683, 54362). Can be reared under hyper-saline conditions (Ref. 4537, 44894, 52307). Tolerates low dissolved oxygen levels (Ref. 3, 23, 6465) and can utilise atmospheric oxygen when water oxygen levels drop (Ref. 61, 6465). Mainly diurnal. May form schools (Ref. 3, 4537, 44894). Omnivorous (Ref. 21, 12524), feeds mainly on algae and phytoplankton (Ref. 4537, 7248, 12501, 12522, 12524, 13337, 36683, 44894, 52307) but also takes some zooplankton, small insects and their larvae (Ref. 4537, 7248, 12524, 13337, 44894, 52307), shrimps (Ref. 12524, 13337), earthworms (Ref. 12501) and aquatic macrophytes (Ref. 6465). Juveniles carnivorous/omnivorous, adults tend to be herbivorous or detritus feeders (Ref. 2, 6465, 13517). Large individuals have been reported to prey on small fishes (Ref. 2, 6465, 12501, 12522), and occasionally cannibalise their own young (Ref. 2, 6465). Exhibits considerable plasticity in feeding habits (Ref. 6465, 13544) as well as in reproductive biology (Ref. 13544). Polygamous (Ref. 12524, 13337), maternal mouthbrooder (Ref. 1, 5214, 12524, 13337). Reaches sexual maturity at 15 centimeter length (Ref. 44894), but stunted fish may breed at 6-7 centimeters and at an age of just over 2 months (Ref. 52307). Fecundity high (Ref. 55352). Extended temperature range 8-42 °C, natural temperature range 17-35°C (Ref. 3), with salinity-dependent difference in temperature tolerance (Ref. 2, 23). Somewhat aggressive toward other species (Ref. 36683). Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987). Excellent palatability (Ref. 6465), with small head and large dress-out weight (Ref. 61), and filets without small bones (Ref. 57960). Used extensively in biological, physiological and behavioural research (Ref. 7248). Translocated and introduced for aquaculture, sport fishing, stocking man-made lakes and biological control of nuisance plants and animals (Ref. 6465). Eurytopic; a most successful and vagile invader (Ref. 6465).

栖息于水库,河,小溪,排水沟,沼泽与潮汐的小溪; 通常在泥底之上, 常见于植物生长良好的区域中.(参考文献 44894) 快速流动的水没有出现但是在不流动的水域中繁荣.(参考文献 7248) 常见于没口河与沿岸湖泊.(参考文献 32693) 也发现于缓动性溪流里、水池、水渠和池塘的温暖杂草丛生水池。 (参考文献 5723) 能平安渡过暂时 waterbodies 的极端减少。 (参考文献 27445) 高度地广盐性;(参考文献 27445,55352) 在淡水、半咸淡水与海水中生长而且繁殖。 (参考文献27445,54362) 主要日行性。 可能形成魚群.(參考文獻 4537,44894) 雜食性, 吃主要吃藻類,而且浮游植物也捕食一些浮游動物 , 與小的昆蟲與他們的幼體。 (參考文獻 4537,7248,52307,44894) 稚魚是肉食性的, 成魚傾向食草的.(參考文獻 13517) 在它的食性中顯示相當多的可塑性以及在它的生殖生物學特性中.(參考文獻 13544) 在公分長度 15(參考文獻 44894) 達成性成熟,但是成長受了妨礙的魚可能在 6-7 公分繁殖而在一個只是超過 2個月的年齡.(參考文獻 52307) 高度地的孕卵數.(參考文獻 55352) 雄性挖而且防護一個流域-形狀的凹洞母魚放置 100-1700個卵的地方.(參考文獻 44894) 卵與脾臟被吸在被上面母魚 (參考文獻 44894) 與魚苗在 3-5 天之後在她的嘴中孵化.(參考文獻 44894,52307) 幼魚在 10- 中被從嘴巴釋放 14 天, 但是如果威脅直到大約 3個星期之久的時候保持在母魚的附近而且進入嘴巴.(參考文獻 44894,52307) 雌性在一個季節期間每個 3-4個星期蓄養多個窩。 (參考文獻 7248) 能在高鹽度的情況被後面。 (參考文獻 4537,44894,52307) 擴大的溫差 8-42 °C, 自然溫差 17-35 °C.(參考文獻 3) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍.(參考文獻 9987) 廣泛地在生物學的﹐生理學的與行為的研究方面使用。 (參考文獻 7248)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawns at the edge of the littoral terrace of lakes (Ref. 1, 2, 87, 6465), in sandy or muddy bottoms (Ref. 57425). Displays a lek mating system; territorial males establish breeding territories where they dig spawning pits, assume a dark coloration, defend a breeding territory and actively court females; sneaking males intrude into nests during a spawning episode, exhibiting quivering behavior which is usually an indicator of sperm release; sneaking is predominantly performed by subordinate males, which may adopt pseudo-female behavior (Ref. 57425). Only territorial males produce sounds, during all phases of courtship but especially during the late stages, including spawning (Ref. 49830). Territorial male excavates and defends a basin-shaped pit in the center of his territory, where female deposits 100-1700(1800) eggs (Ref. 44894, 52307). Eggs and milt are sucked up by the female (Ref. 2, 44894). Fertilization is reported to sometimes occur in the mouth of the female (Ref. 6028). Females incubate eggs alone (Ref. 12501, 52307). It is possible, albeit rare, that males take up some eggs after spawning (Ref. 2, 5726, 52307, 57895), but they almost always eat them soon after (Ref. 52307). Females school together while mouthbrooding (Ref. 40035), they cease to feed and subsist on food reserves stored in their body (Ref. 1). Females may spawn a full clutch with just one male, or may spawn with several different males in a series (Ref. 52307). Water is circulated over the eggs by chewing movements of the jaws (Ref. 12501, 12522). Fry hatch in the female's mouth after 3-5 days (Ref. 2, 12501, 12522, 44894, 52307), depending on the temperature (Ref. 52307). The young are released from the mouth in 10-14 days, but remain near the female and enter the mouth if threatened until about 3 weeks old (Ref. 2, 44894, 52307). Fry and juveniles shoal in shallow water (Ref. 6465, 7248, 57895) where they feed during the day, and retreat to deep water at night (Ref. 87, 6465). Females raise multiple broods during a season (Ref. 7248, 57895).非洲: 尚比西河下游, 雪利河下游與海岸的平原從尚比西河三角州到奧歌亞灣。 生存在凌波波河系統的東方的岬與南非德蘭士瓦中向南至 Brak 河.(參考文獻 6465) 廣泛地為水產業引入, 但是在許多國家中逃脫了而且在野外繁殖, 時常競爭驅逐地方種.(參考文獻 12217) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Kullander, Sven O. | 合作者

Trewavas, E., 1982. Tilapias: taxonomy and speciation. p. 3-13. In R.S.V. Pullin and R.H. Lowe-McConnell (eds.) The biology and culture of tilapias. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 7. (Ref. 1)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A4ae); Date assessed: 02 October 2017

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  潜能有害之物





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 商业性
FAO(养殖: 产生; 渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.01477 - 0.02347), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.2   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.0 (2.6 - 4.5) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 27 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.2-0.5; tm<1; tmax=11).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.