Perca fluviatilis, European perch : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758

European perch
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Perca fluviatilis
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Percoidei (Perchs) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Perca: Greek, perke = perch, a fish without identificaction (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9988), usually 3 - 4 m (Ref. 55947).   温带; 10°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672); 74°N - 38°N, 91°W - 168°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: throughout Europe to northernmost extremity of Scandinavia, except Iberian Peninsula, central Italy, and Adriatic basin; Aegean Sea basin in Matriza and from Struma to Aliakmon drainages; Aral Sea basin; Siberia in rivers draining the Arctic Ocean eastward to Kolyma. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
在欧洲与西伯利亚到科力马河河各处, 但是不在西班牙或意大利; 广泛地引入。 引入后的一些国家报告不利的生态冲击。 记录来自希腊了。 (参考文献 42629)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 16.8, range 11 - 23.4 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 25.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大体重: 4.8 kg (Ref. 2058); 最大年龄: 22 年 (Ref. 796)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 14 - 20; 背的软条 (总数): 13-16; 臀棘 2; 臀鳍软条: 7 - 10; 脊椎骨: 39 - 42. Diagnosed from other species of Percidae in Europe by having the following unique characters: pelvic and anal fins yellow to red; posterior part of first dorsal fin with dark blotch; and flank with 5-8 bold dark bars, usually Y-shaped. Differs further by the combination of the following features: two dorsal fins, clearly separated from each other; and 56-77 scales along lateral line (Ref. 59043). Body greenish-yellow; 5-9 transverse black bands on the sides; first dorsal fin gray, black spot at the tip; second dorsal greenish-yellow; pectorals yellow; other fins red. First dorsal fin markedly higher than the second. Caudal fin emarginate (Ref. 2058).
身体黄绿色的; 5- 侧边上的 9条横跨的黑色条纹; 在顶端的第一背鳍灰色又黑色的斑点; 第二背鳍黄绿色的; 胸鳍黄色; 其他的鳍红色。 第一背鳍显着地比第二个更高。 尾鳍边缘微凹的.(参考文献 2058)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits a very wide range of habitats from estuarine lagoons, lakes of all types to medium-sized streams. Feeding larvae occur in open water. This is an opportunistic diurnal feeder which preys mainly during sunrise and sunset, using all available prey. Larvae and small juveniles usually feed on planktonic invertebrates. During first summer, many juveniles move near shores to feed on benthic prey. Often feeds on fishes at about 12 cm SL. May undertake short spawning migrations. Males attain first sexual maturity at 1-2 years and females at 2-4 years of age. Spawns in February-July (Ref. 59043). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Its flesh is excellent and not so bony. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9988). May be captured with natural or artificial bait (Ref. 30578).

出现于缓慢流动的河,深的湖泊与池塘; 避开寒冷, 快速流动的水但是可能刺入但是在如此的水域中不繁殖。 通常发现说谎接近或被在水在障碍中。 发现于波罗的海的一些半咸淡水域了。 (参考文献 9988,44894) 普遍的在哪里有丰富的水生植物.(参考文献 44894) 一个掠食性的种, 稚鱼吃浮游动物, 底部无脊椎的动物相与其他的鲷科鱼苗虽然成鱼吃无脊椎动物和鱼, 主要地 stickle-backs ,栖木, roach 鱼与条鱼类.(参考文献 6465,44894) 在春天产卵。 卵团对其他的鱼是不適口的而且因此被保護。 卵在 1-3個星期中孵化,而且幼魚在著手進行一個獨居性的生存之前為一些時間形成魚群。 (參考文獻 44894) 在長的白色緞帶 (向上到 1 公尺) 聚集的卵被發現水下物體之上。 (參考文獻 41678) 飲食的偏愛已經創造在相信這種不利地影響原生魚包括默里鱈魚, Macquarie 棲木的分枝,微小的棲木與彩虹魚的環保主義者之中的恐懼。 (參考文獻 44894) 在澳洲用於商業性地養殖了。 (參考文獻 7306) 它的肉是優良的而不是如此多骨。 生鮮使用與冷凍; 吃油鍋炸與燒烤的.(參考文獻 9988) 可能是用自然或人造的誘餌捕獲。 (參考文獻 30578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

During breeding, males arrive at the spawning area ahead of the females. One or two of these males chases a ripe female as soon as it arrives in the area (polyandry) (Ref. 6258). The queue of males maybe longer composed of about 15 to 25 individuals, but only two prod their snouts against the female's belly (Ref. 205). After rounds of curved course through the interlacing branches near the surface (Ref. 205), males fertilize the egg ribbon as the female lays them over weeds or other submerged objects (Ref. 6258). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Eggs hatch in about 8 to 16 days at normal temperatures (Ref. 6258). Males mature at 2-3 years and females at 4 years. Spawning, in the Northern hemisphere, happens in spring in waters with temperatures between 7-8°C. Eggs are laid in sticky strings becoming fixed to aquatic plants and rocks. Incubation lasts about 1- 8 days at 1- 3°. Egg size 2.0-2.5mm, larval length at hatching 5mm.在欧洲与西伯利亚到科力马河河各处, 但是不在西班牙或意大利; 广泛地引入。 引入后的一些国家报告不利的生态冲击。 记录来自希腊了。 (参考文献 42629)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  潜能有害之物





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00837 - 0.01194), b=3.08 (3.03 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.7 (5.2 - 6.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 39 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.1-0.4; tm=2-4; tmax=22; Fecundity=13,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 19.4 [9.6, 43.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.105 [0.060, 0.172] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.5, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.56 [0.19, 1.55] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.4 [5.8, 93.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.4 [6.1, 61.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.414 [0.291, 0.604] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.