Sander lucioperca, Pike-perch : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

You can sponsor this page

Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pike-perch
上傳你的 相片 和 影像
Pictures | Videos | Sounds | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google 影像
Image of Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)
Sander lucioperca
Picture by Zienert, S.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Percoidei (Perchs) 鱸形目 (Perchs) > Percidae (Perches) 鱸科 (Perches) > Luciopercinae
  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 大洋性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 2 - 30 m (Ref. 30578), usually 2 - 3 m (Ref. 27368).   溫帶; 6°C - 22°C (Ref. 2059); 67°N - 36°N, 1°W - 75°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: Caspian, Baltic, Black and Aral Sea basins; Elbe (North Sea basin) and Maritza (Aegean basin) drainages. North to about 65° N in Finland. Introduced widely (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
東方而中歐洲,瑞典與芬蘭, 西方亞洲; 引入一些歐洲的國家中了。 這種在一些地區已經耗損原生魚的分枝在那裡它已經為釣魚被引入.(參考文獻 9988) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 36.7, range 28 - 46 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 20.0 kg (Ref. 40476); 最大年齡: 17 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 13 - 20; 背的軟條 (總數): 18-24; 臀棘 2-3; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 14; 脊椎骨: 45 - 47. Distinguished from congeners in Europe by the following combination of characters: 1-2 enlarged canine teeth in anterior part of each jaw; second dorsal fin with 18-22½ branched rays; and 80-97 scales on lateral line (Ref. 59043).
細長的身體, 沒有交叉的條紋。 沒有在鰓蓋上的棘.(參考文獻 35388) 尾鰭有 17個軟鰭條。 (參考文獻 40476)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit large, turbid rivers and eutrophic lakes, brackish coastal lakes and estuaries. Feed mainly on gregarious, pelagic fishes. They attain first sexual maturity at 3-10 years of age, usually at 4. Undertake short spawning migrations. Individuals foraging in brackish water move to freshwater habitats. Migrations up to 250 km have been recorded. Homing is well developed, even nearby populations may be relatively isolated. Spawn in pairs at dawn or night. Spawning occurs in April-May, exceptional from late February until July, depending on latitude and altitude when temperatures reach 10-14° C on spawning grounds (Ref. 59043). Popularly fished by sport fishers. Its flesh is succulent (Ref. 30578). Utilized fresh or frozen and eaten steamed, broiled and microwaved (Ref. 9988). An individual weighing 19 kg was reportedly caught in 1959 in Starnberger, Bavaria, Germany (Peter Admicka, pers. Comm. E-mail: peter.adamicka@oeaw.ac.at).

深地棲息於, 湖,水庫,管與河的平靜水域。 主要捕食魚。 (參考文獻 30578,9696) 被 S. lucioperca 佔領的棲息地可能在不同的季節期間改變, 如在美國被做的無線電追蹤研究所示。 秋天時,成魚在 1.20-1.80 公尺深中偏愛一個大小圓石的底部。 冬天時,當溫度接近 5 °C 的時候, S. lucioperca 被發現於凹窪與下陷處在那裡它們過冬。 當溫度在春天上升上方 2.8 °C 的時候,他們開始溯溪迴游。 產卵在產卵之後在一個 1.40-1.50 公尺/秒的水流中由大小圓石組成的底部上的一個大約 11 °C 的溫度發生,父母漂流下游而且停留在中水池, 1.20-1.80 公尺深,達二個星期。 必死的命運在產卵之後影響雌性。 在夏天, Z. lucioperca 在可變的深度偏愛一個小圓石的底部而且被發現, 時常在凹窪與下陷處的向上游邊緣上在哪裡有一個水流的破裂。 當溫度達到 30 °C 的時候,他們尋找深水池。 (參考文獻 30578) 產卵在低的緯度比較早。 (參考文獻 10999) 淡黃色的卵被發現依附於突出的植物或石頭與礫石。 (參考文獻 41678) 一般地藉著釣客捕獲。 它的肉是多汁的。 (參考文獻 30578) 生鮮使用或冷凍的而且清蒸了, 火烤了而且微波了.(參考文獻 9988) 一個個別的秤重 19 公斤據報告被捕獲 1959 在 Starnberger ,巴伐利亞, 德國 (彼得 Admicka , pers. comm。 電子郵件: peter.adamicka@oeaw.ac.at).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

The spawning places are over gravel in moving water (Ref. 205). "Males are territorial and excavate shallow depressions about 50 cm in diameter and 5-10 cm deep in sand or gravel, or among exposed plant roots on which eggs are deposited, usually in turbid water and at 1-3 m depth. Spawn in pairs, at dawn or night. The female remains over the nest while the male circles rapidly around, at about 1 meter from the nest. Then male takes a vertical orientation and both swim around swiftly, and eggs and sperm are released, The female leaves the nest after all eggs are released. The male defends the nest and fans the eggs with his pectorals. Females spawn once a year, laying all the eggs at one time (Ref. 88075). Feeding larvae are positively phototactic and feed on pelagic organisms after they leave the nest for open water" (Ref. 59043).東方而中歐洲,瑞典與芬蘭, 西方亞洲; 引入一些歐洲的國家中了。 這種在一些地區已經耗損原生魚的分枝在那裡它已經為釣魚被引入.(參考文獻 9988) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物 (Ref. 57271)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO - 養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

工具

特別的報告

下載 XML

網路資源

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00547 - 0.00798), b=3.10 (3.04 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.78 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 10.2 (6.5 - 12.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.10-0.24; tmax=16; Fecundity=10,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 45.9 [24.6, 74.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.316 [0.170, 0.633] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.6, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 1.15 [0.43, 2.88] g/100g ; Selenium = 2.14 [0.65, 6.15] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.1 [6.3, 72.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.73 [0.52, 1.02] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.