Sander lucioperca, Pike-perch : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pike-perch
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Sander lucioperca
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Percoidei (Perchs) > Percidae (Perches) > Luciopercinae
  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 大洋性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 2 - 30 m (Ref. 30578), usually 2 - 3 m (Ref. 27368).   溫帶; 6°C - 22°C (Ref. 2059); 67°N - 36°N, 1°W - 75°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: Caspian, Baltic, Black and Aral Sea basins; Elbe (North Sea basin) and Maritza (Aegean basin) drainages. North to about 65° N in Finland. Introduced widely (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
東方而中歐洲,瑞典與芬蘭, 西方亞洲; 引入一些歐洲的國家中了。 這種在一些地區已經耗損原生魚的分枝在那裡它已經為釣魚被引入.(參考文獻 9988) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 36.7, range 28 - 46 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大体重: 20.0 kg (Ref. 40476); 最大年龄: 17 年 (Ref. 59043)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 13 - 20; 背的软条 (总数): 18-24; 臀棘 2-3; 臀鳍软条: 10 - 14; 脊椎骨: 45 - 47. Distinguished from congeners in Europe by the following combination of characters: 1-2 enlarged canine teeth in anterior part of each jaw; second dorsal fin with 18-22½ branched rays; and 80-97 scales on lateral line (Ref. 59043).
细长的身体, 没有交叉的条纹。 没有在鳃盖上的棘.(参考文献 35388) 尾鳍有 17个软鳍条。 (参考文献 40476)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit large, turbid rivers and eutrophic lakes, brackish coastal lakes and estuaries. Feed mainly on gregarious, pelagic fishes. They attain first sexual maturity at 3-10 years of age, usually at 4. Undertake short spawning migrations. Individuals foraging in brackish water move to freshwater habitats. Migrations up to 250 km have been recorded. Homing is well developed, even nearby populations may be relatively isolated. Spawn in pairs at dawn or night. Spawning occurs in April-May, exceptional from late February until July, depending on latitude and altitude when temperatures reach 10-14° C on spawning grounds (Ref. 59043). Popularly fished by sport fishers. Its flesh is succulent (Ref. 30578). Utilized fresh or frozen and eaten steamed, broiled and microwaved (Ref. 9988). An individual weighing 19 kg was reportedly caught in 1959 in Starnberger, Bavaria, Germany (Peter Admicka, pers. Comm. E-mail: peter.adamicka@oeaw.ac.at).

深地栖息于, 湖,水库,管与河的平静水域。 主要捕食鱼。 (参考文献 30578,9696) 被 S. lucioperca 占领的栖息地可能在不同的季节期间改变, 如在美国被做的无线电追踪研究所示。 秋天时,成鱼在 1.20-1.80 公尺深中偏爱一个大小圆石的底部。 冬天时,当温度接近 5 °C 的时候, S. lucioperca 被发现于凹洼与下陷处在哪里它们过冬。 当温度在春天上升上方 2.8 °C 的时候,他们开始溯溪回游。 产卵在产卵之后在一个 1.40-1.50 公尺/秒的水流中由大小圆石组成的底部上的一个大约 11 °C 的温度发生,父母漂流下游而且停留在中水池, 1.20-1.80 公尺深,达二个星期。 必死的命运在产卵之后影响雌性。 在夏天, Z. lucioperca 在可变的深度偏爱一个小圆石的底部而且被发现, 时常在凹洼与下陷处的向上游边缘上在哪里有一个水流的破裂。 当温度达到 30 °C 的时候,他们寻找深水池。 (参考文献 30578) 产卵在低的纬度比较早。 (参考文献 10999) 淡黄色的卵被发现依附于突出的植物或石头与砾石。 (参考文献 41678) 一般地藉着钓客捕获。 它的肉是多汁的。 (参考文献 30578) 生鲜使用或冷冻的而且清蒸了, 火烤了而且微波了.(参考文献 9988) 一个个别的秤重 19 公斤据报告被捕获 1959 在 Starnberger ,巴伐利亚, 德国 (彼得 Admicka , pers. comm。 电子邮件: peter.adamicka@oeaw.ac.at).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

The spawning places are over gravel in moving water (Ref. 205). "Males are territorial and excavate shallow depressions about 50 cm in diameter and 5-10 cm deep in sand or gravel, or among exposed plant roots on which eggs are deposited, usually in turbid water and at 1-3 m depth. Spawn in pairs, at dawn or night. The female remains over the nest while the male circles rapidly around, at about 1 meter from the nest. Then male takes a vertical orientation and both swim around swiftly, and eggs and sperm are released, The female leaves the nest after all eggs are released. The male defends the nest and fans the eggs with his pectorals. Females spawn once a year, laying all the eggs at one time (Ref. 88075). Feeding larvae are positively phototactic and feed on pelagic organisms after they leave the nest for open water" (Ref. 59043).東方而中歐洲,瑞典與芬蘭, 西方亞洲; 引入一些歐洲的國家中了。 這種在一些地區已經耗損原生魚的分枝在那裡它已經為釣魚被引入.(參考文獻 9988) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  可能有害的 (Ref. 57271)





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO - 养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00547 - 0.00798), b=3.10 (3.04 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.78 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 10.2 (6.5 - 12.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.10-0.24; tmax=16; Fecundity=10,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 45.9 [24.6, 74.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.316 [0.170, 0.633] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.6, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 1.15 [0.43, 2.88] g/100g ; Selenium = 2.14 [0.65, 6.15] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.1 [6.3, 72.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.73 [0.52, 1.02] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.